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Full text of "The ground-water resources of Wayne County, New York"

STATE OF NEW YORK 


DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 


WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES 
OF WAYNE COUNTY, 
NEW YORK 


By 
R. E. GRISWOLD 


Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey 


Prepared by the 
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN COOPERATION WITH THE 
WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


BULLETIN GW-29 
ALBANY, N. Y. 
1951 


--., 




STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


PERRY B. DUREA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation Commissioner, Chairman 
B. D. TALLAMY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Superintendent of Public Worb 
NATHANIEL GOLDSTEIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . 
 . . . .Attorney General 
JOHN C. THOMPSON, Executive Engineer 


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 


OSCAR L. CHAPMAN, Secretary 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


WILLIAM E. WRATHER...................................... Director 
C. G. PAULSEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chief Hydraulic Engineer 
A. N . SAYRE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chief, Ground Water Branch 
M. L. BRASHEARS, JR. .............................. District Geologist 




CONTENTS 


Page 
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . .. . ... . . .. ...... .. . . .. ...... . .. . ... 1 


Introduction ............................. ..I................. ......... ............. ..................... ....... 2 
Purpose and scope. of i
 vesti
a ti
n ...........'............................................. 2 
Summary of prevIous Invest
gatIons .................................................... 2 
Acknowledgments ................!................................................................... 4 


Geography ..................................:. 
................................................................. 4 
Location and culture ............:................................................................... 4 
Topography and drainage .... 
 .. .... .. .......... .... ...... .... .. . .. . ...... .. . ... .. ....... ... .. ." 5 
Climate .................................. r................................................................... 7 
Natural resources ... . . . . . . . . " . . . 
 ... ... . . .. . . " ., . '" .. . . .. .. ... . .. .. ... ... ..... . ... . .. .. . .. . . .., .., 9 


Geologic formations and their Water-bearing properties ........................ 10 
Consolidated rocks ............... .;.................... ................. ........ .................. ..... 10 
Albion sandstone ..............!.................................................................... 10 
Clinton formation .......... ..i.................................................................... 12 
Lockport dolomite ........... .;....................................... ................ ............. 14 
Salina formation ............. .:..................... ...................... ......... ........ ........ 15 
Unconsolidated deposi ts . . . . . .1. . .... . .. . ......... ... . .. ... .......... . ., ...... .. . . ........... . ... .. 16 
Glacial drift (Pleistocene) 1 .................................................................. 16 
Ground moraine ........... J. .................................... ..... ................... ...... 16 
Glacial-lake deposits ... J................................................................... 16 
Drumlins ....................... .:........ ................... ........................................ 16 
I 
Kames, eskers, and delt,s ................................................................ 17 
Glacial-stream deposits I.................................................................... 17 
Alluvium (Recent) ........... .1..... .......... ....................... ............ ................. 18 


Ground water ........................... .1.................................................................... 19 
So urce . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. 19 
I 
Occurrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .1. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. . 19 
Movement and storage ........;.................................................................... 20 
Water levels ......................... 
............................... ..................................... 22 
Natural fluctuations ....... J.................................................................... 22 
Pumping test, Lyons, N. Y., by E. S. Simpson ................................ 24 
Relation between bedro
k and gravel aquifers ............................ 24 
Permeability of gravel 
quifer . ....................................................... 25 
Recovery . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . 
 . . . . . 
 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . ... ... . .. .. .. . ..... ... . .. " . ... ... . .. . 29 
Principles of recovery frorp. wells ............... ........................................ 29 
Types of wells ...................;.................................................................... 30 
Springs ............................. j.................................................................... 30 


Hi 



tr 


CON TEN T S - (Continued) 


Page 


Ground Water-Continued. 
Utilization .................................................................................................. 32 
Public supplies .................................................................................... 32 
Clyde .................................................................................................. 32 
Lyons .................................................................................................. 32 
Macedon .............................................................................................. 32 
Newark .............................................................................................. 32 
Ontario ..........................................'0..................................................... 33 
Palmyra .............................................................................................. 33 
Red Creek .......................................................................................... 33 
Savannah ............................................................................................ 33 
Sodus .................................................................................................. 33 
Sodus Point........................................................................................ 33 
Williamson ........................................................................................ 33 
Wolcott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . '" . .. . . . . . ... . . .. .. ........ '" ... .. . . .. ... . .. . ... . . .. . . . .., .. . . . 34 
Industrial and commercial supplies .................................................... 34 
Domestic and farm supplies ................................................................ 34 
Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . .. . ... .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 34 
Chemical constituents .......... ............... ........................... ......... ............. 34 
Dissolved solids ................................................................................ 34 
Hardness ................................................................................. ............ 35 
Iron (Fe) ........................................................................................... 35 
Chloride (CI) . .. . . ....... ... .. .... .... ... ..... ................ ................ .. .... ...... .... ... 35 
Temperature . . . . . .. . .. . .. ... ......... ... ... ......... ... .... ..... . .. ...... .... ...... . . .. . ... .. ... . .. ... 38 


References ...................................................................................................... 38 


Index . " . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... . .. .. ........ ... ... ...... ...... ......................... ...... ............. ............ ... 60 


iv 



Plate 1. 
2. 
3. 


Figure 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


Page 


Map of Wayne County, N. Y., showing location of wells and 
springs ................................................................................ ....... In pocket 
Map of bedrock of Wayne County ........................................ In pocket 
Map of unconsolidated deposits of Wayne County.............. In pocket 


Index map of New York State showing areas of cooperative 
ground-water studies ........................................................................ 3 
Bedrock-contour map of Wayne County showing part of the 
Fairport-Lyons channel .................................................................... 6 
Average annual level of Lake Ontario at Oswego, N. Y., 1860 to 
1950 ................................... .......... ... .................................................... 8 


Water level in observation well Wn 29 at Marion and monthly 
precipitation at Macedon ............................................................... 21 
Hydrograph of well Wn 29, showing small fluctuations resulting 
from the weight of passing railroad trains_ ................................ 23 
Plan of well field at Lyons, N. Y. .................................................... 24 
Hydrograph of wells Wn 545 and Wn 546 during pumping test 
Feb. 13, 1950, to Mar. 14, 1950 .......................................................... 26 
Semilogarithmic plot of draw down and recovery in well Wn 545 
during pumping test in 1950 ........................................................ 28 


TABLES 


Page 


9 
9 


1. Temperature data, Wayne County, N. Y. .................................... 
2. Precipitation data, Wayne County ................................................ 
3. Geologic formations in WaYDe County and their water-bearing 
properties ............................................................................................ 11 
31 


4. Records of selected springs in Wayne County . .. .. . .. ...... .. .... . .. . .. .. 
5. Chemical analyses of water from selected wells and springs in 
Wayne County .................................................................................. 36 
6. Drillers' logs of selected wells in Wayne County............................ 40 
7. Records of selected wells in Wayne County .................................... 44 
8. Reports dealing with ground-water conditions in New York.... 58 


v 




THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF WAYNE COUNTY, NEW YORK 


By R. E. GRISWOLD 


ABSTRACT 


This report has been prepared as part of a State-wide survey of the ground-water 
resources of New York being made by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation 
with the N ew York State Water Power and Control Commission. Field work was done in 
1947 and 1948 when records were obtained for 567 wells, borings, and springs. Thirty-one 
water samples were collected for chemical analysis. 
Wayne County, situated in the Lake Ontario region of New York, has an area of 607 
square miles and a population of 56,879. The principal occupations are farming and fruit 
growing. The area lies in the eastern lake section of the Central Lowland Physiographic 
province and comprises two topographic divisions-a drumlin region and a lake plain. The 
climate is temperate and the mean annual air temperature is 47° F. The average annual pre- 
cipitation is 36 inches. 
The exposed rocks in Wayne County consist of the Albion sandstone, the Clinton 
formation, the Lockport dolomite, and the Salina formation, all of Silurian age. The Albion 
sandstone and the Clinton formation may yield water of good quality to wells, but yields 
are generally less than 30 gallons per minute (gpm). The Lockport dolomite and the Salina 
formation may yield as much as 300 gpm to wells, but the quality of water from these rocks 
is very poor. Surficial deposits of Pleistocene till, clay, sand, and gravel, and Recent alluvium, 
mantle most of the bedrock. Beds of coarse sand and gravel are the best aquifers in the 
County, and may yield as much as 1,200 gpm to wells. Water from the Pleistocene deposits 
generally is of better quality than water from the bedrock. 
The ground-water reservoirs are recharged principally by precipitation in Wayne 
County. Most of the private supplies and many of the public supplies in the County are 
obtained from ground-water sources. At present, utilization of ground water is less than 
the annual recharge, and additional supplies for stock or domestic use may be obtained 
almost anywhere in the County. Large supplies of good quality, however, can be developed 
only from deposits of sand and gravel such as those in the buried valley in the Fairport- 
Lyons area in the southern part of the County. 



INTRODUCTION 


PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATIO", 
The Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey, United States Department of 
the Interior, in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission, 
began an investigation in 1947 to determine the quantity and quality of the ground water 
available in Wayne County, N. Y. This is part of a State-wide program designed to permit 
a fuller utilization and conservation of the natural resources of New York. Reports have 
already been published for Albany, Columbia, Fulton, Monroe, Montgomery, Schoharie, 
Seneca, and Rensselaer Counties, and parts of Broome and Cortland Counties. The status of 
the State-wide program is shown in figure 1. Published reports, including ground-water bul- 
letins for the Long Island area, are listed in table 8. 
The first phase of the investigation in WaYDe County consisted of collecting records 
of 567 wells, borings, and springs. This information was obtained in 1947 from property 
owners, well drillers, and local officials. Incomplete or uncertain data limit the value of 
some of the well' records, but 380 are tabulated on this report. Field work was carried on by 
the writer for about 8 weeks during the summer of 1948, to determine the relation of the 
yield of the water-bearing beds to geologic conditions. Samples of water from 38 selected 
wells and springs were analyzed by the New York State Department of Public Health, 3 
were analyzed at the Quality of Water laboratory of the U. S. Geological Survey, and 7 were 
analyzed elsewhere. 
The locations of all wells and springs for which records are given are shown on plate 
1. The wells have been numbered in sequence beginning with Wn 1, and the springs are 
similarly numbered beginning with Wn ISp. 
As an aid in reporting a well or spring location anywhere in New York State, merid- 
ian lines at 15-minutes intervals have been lettered consecutively from west to east, begin- 
ning with "A" and ending with "Z". Similarly, parallels, of latitude have been numbered 
at 15-minute intervals from north to south, beginning with "I" and ending with "17". The 
coordinate letters and numbers applying to Wayne County are shown on the well location map, 
(pI. 1). The intersections of the coordinates form points from which, by means of distance 
and direction, the wells and springs can be located. For example, well Wn 302 (8L, 4.2S, 
3.8E) can be found 4.2 miles south and 3.8 miles east of the intersection of coordinates 
"8" and "L". The coordinates, distances, and directions for each well and spring location are 
shown in the tables of well and spring records. The prefix "Wn" in each well and spring num- 
ber has been omitted on plate 1 but all wells and springs shown are in Wayne County. 


SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS . 
The geology of the Clyde and Sodus Bay quadrangles, in the eastern half of Wayne 
County, has been described by Gillette (1940).1 His report, which contains a chapter on water 
resources written by B. H. Dollen, has been invaluable in preparing the geologic map of 
Wayne County for this report. His geologic map of the Clyde and Sodus Bay quadrangles 
has been used virtually unchanged, and the contacts of the formations shown thereon have 
been extended by field work to the east and west by field work. On plate 2 the Clinton for- 
mation has not been subdivided into its various members as was done by Gillette. 
Many other geologists have studied the rocks in Wayne County and some of their 
reports are listed in the references at the end of this report. The soils of Wayne County have 


1 References are listed alphabetically at the end of this report. 


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been described by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils (Van Duyne, 1923). 
The ground-water conditions near Macedon in Wayne County as described by Cushman 
(1946) have been incorporated, essentially unchanged, into the present report. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
Most of the records of wells and springs in Wayne County were collected by V. H. 
Rockefeller, who died shortly after his work in the area was completed. His loss is felt 
deeply by the personnel of the Ground Water office at Albany and by others who knew him. 
The author acknowledges the assistance given by the residents of Wayne County in 
furnishing data of wells and springs. Thanks are also due local well contractors and County 
and village officials, who cheerfully contributed their time and furnished much information. 
The Layne-New York Co., Inc., made their records available for use as did Lozier & Co. of 
Rochester. The N ew York State Canal Board in Syracuse furnished test-boring data along 
the Erie Canal. Mr. Wilbur Secor of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (Sodus office) fur- 
nished much information pertaining to the soils of Wayne County. E. S. Simpson of the 
Geological Survey prepared that part of the report entitled "Pumping test, Lyons, N. Y." 
Thanks are offered both to the village of Lyons and to Morrell Vrooman Engineers, consult- 
ing engineers to the village, for their generous cooperation in helping to obtain data on 
the pumping test at Lyons. 


GEOGRAPHY 


LOCATION AND CULTURE 
Wayne County is in central New York about midway between the cities of Rochester 
and Syracuse, the center of the County being about 35 miles east of Rochester. Its northern 
boundary forms a part of the southern shore line of Lake Ontario. The County is approxi- 
mately rectangular in outline, extending about 35 miles east and west and 20 miles north 
and south. It has a land area of 607 square miles. 
According to the U. S. Bureau of the Census, the population of the County in 1950 
was 56,879. This was an increase of about 4,000 since 1940. The population is largely rural, 
and farming is the principal occupation. There are more than 4,300 farms in the County, 
85 percent of which are operated by the owners. With the aid of the Department of Agri- 
culture, which maintains an office in Sodus, the use of modern farming techniques is be- 
coming more widespread. 
A great variety of crops are grown in the fertile soils of Wayne County. The County 
ranks second in the Nation in the production of apples, and third in the production of 
cherries, a large part of which are raised in the northern section where sandy soil is well 
suited to the growing of fruit. Elsewhere in the County a great variety of crops are raised, 
including hay and forage crops on the many dairy farms. Cereals and canning crops are 
cultivated in many areas; the principal canning crops being peas, tomatoes, sweet corn, 
string beans, rhubarb, and spinach. 
The main industries of the County are those that are directly connected with the 
farming interests, such as vegetable canning, cold storage, and milk processing. In addition, 
several small manufacturing plants have been established in the larger towns. About 18 
percent of the wage earners in the County are employed by industry-a poor second to agri- 
culture in this respect. 


4 



The transportation facilities in Wayne County are excellent. There are 1,354 miles 
of Federal, State, County, and town roads. The Erie Canal, part of the New York State 
Canal System, crosses the southern part of the County. The County is served also by the 
New York Central Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad. 


TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE 
Wayne County is in the eastern lake section of the Central Lowland physiographic 
province. (Fenneman, 1938, p. 456). The County has maturely dissected and glaciated cues- 
tas and lowlands, and is divided into two physiographic divisions, the rolling drumlin region 
and the lake plain. West of Sodus Bay these divisions are clearly separated by a bea
h 
formed by glacial Lake Iroquois. The beach rises abruptly 15 to 25 feet above the lake pla!in 
to the north. The drumlin area i.s south of the beach. West of the village of Sodus the beach 
is very well defined and is followed by U. S. Highway 104, which locally is called the Ridge 
Road. East of Sodus the beach turns south and east and becomes indistinct. Farther ea
t 
occasional beach deposits are found, but they are not of sufficient length to indicate accu- 
rately the shore line and the boundary between the drumlin area and the lake plain is ill- 
defined. East of Sodus Bay the drumlin area extends to the shore line of Lake Ontario, and 
forms conspicuous cliffs. 
The drumlin area, as the name suggests, consists of numerous drumlins, either singly 
or in groups. The long axis of each of these elliptical hills trends slightly east of south. 
The hills slope steeply to the north and gently to the south. Because of the orientation of 
the drumlins, most of the maj or valleys in the area trend southward. Areas of muck lie in 
some of the larger valleys, but in other valleys terrace and till soils predominate. The drum- 
lin area constitutes more than half the County and in this part of the County the maximum 
altitude is approximately 700 feet above sea level, and the maximum relief is about 300 
feet. 
The lake-plain area was once covered by glacial-lake waters. The area has a gentle 
northward slope and a range in altitude from 247 to 425 feet above sea level. Occasional iso- 
lated drumlins, which were probably islands in the glacial lakes, rise above the plain in 
places. The erosion of thick lake sediments has developed a rolling topography in some 
places. 
Another prominent topographic feature is the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel. 
The mouth of the channel is near Fairport in Monroe County. The channel, partly filled 
with glacial debris, follows a general east-west course through the southern part of Wayne 
County to a point just east of Lyons (fig. 2). The floor of the channel is a quarter to half 
a mile wide and in many places is as much as 200 feet below the surface of the drumlin 
area to the north and south. Its course is followed by the Erie Canal and, in part, by the New 
York Central Railroad. 
Lake Ontario, which forms the entire northern boundary of the County, has greatly 
influenced the topography of the land near its shore. The shore line of the lake is being 
gradually straightened by erosion and the filling of the bays by the streams draining into 
the lake. The water level of Lake Ontario varies considerably with the season of the year 
and also over a period of years. Figure 3 shows the average yearly lake levels for a period 
of 90 years. It is interesting to note that there are peaks at intervals of 16 to 22 years, 
although in one case the peaks are only 8 years apart (1862-1870). In those years when the 
average yearly lake level exceeds 247 feet, the water level during the spring and summer 
often exceeds 249.5 feet apove mean sea level. At such times many cottages built near the 
shore have been flooded by the rising water. It would be wise for those contemplating 
building near the lake to be sure that their building foundations are more than 250 feet 
above mean sea level. 


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All surface drainage in Wayne County eventually reaches Lake Ontario. The northern 
area is drained directly into the lake by a series of northward flowing streams, and the 
southern area is drained into the Clyde and the Oswego River systems and thus eventually J 
to the lake. The divide between the north-flowing and the south-flowing drainage is extremely 
irregular, trending generally east-west through the central part of the County. The northward. 
flowing streams range in length from 5 to 10 miles and have a rather gentle gradient. Many 
of the streams follow glacial channels through the drumlin area and their gradients increase 
as they near the lake. In places these streams have cut well-defined valleys with a few abrupt 
falls, the largest being on Wolcott Creek at the village of Wolcott. 
The southern part of the County is drained mainly by Ganargua Creek and the Clyde 
River. Ganargua Creek and the northward-flowing Canandaigua Outlet join near Lyons 
to form the Clyde River, which flows sluggishly eastward to join the Seneca River south 
of the County boundary. The system follows part of the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream 
channels. In certain localities the normal flow is interrupted by the Erie Canal which fol- 
lows the same valley in places and in other places utilizes the channel of the Clyde River., 
The Clyde River merges with the Montezuma Marsh, which is a glacial-lake remnant. Black, 
Butler, and Crusoe Creeks flow through the marsh area and drain directly into the Seneca 
River. These streams do not effectively drain the marsh. The Clyde River also is ineffective 
in draining the swampland through which it flows; in fact, it occa
ionally contributes water 
to the low areas. 
A stream-gaging station was established in October 1950 by the Surface Water Branch 
of the Geological Survey on the New York State Barge Canal at Lock 30, Macedon, N. Y. 
A stream-gaging station is maintained also on Canandaigua Outlet upstream from Lyons 
at Chapin, Ontario County. The record of flow is available for the period 1939-51. Records 
of stream flow are published in annual water-supply papers entitled "surface water supply 
of the United States." Current measurements are on file at the office of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, Surface Water Branch, Albany, N. Y. 


CLIMATE 


The climate of Wayne County is characterized by moderately heavy precipitation, 
low evaporation, and a wide range in temperature. The summer days are warm and the nights 
comparatively cool. The winters are moderately severe, heavy snowfalls occurring in most 
years. The climate of the northern part of the County, particularly the frequency and in- 
tensity of frost occurrence, is modified somewhat by Lake Ontario. 
According to the U. S. Weather Bureau, the average air temperature of the County 
is about 48 0 F. and ranges from about 72 0 in July to about 24 0 in January and February. 
The highest temperatures usually are in July and August, frequently reaching' 95 0 and 
occasionally 100 0 . Temperatures of 90 0 or above are reported for the period May to October., 
The coldest months are January and February, during which extreme temperatures range 
from _13 0 to _28 0 F. Temperatures of zero or below have been recorded from November 
to March. 


The average length of the growing season in Wayne County is about 170 days. Tem- 
perature records are available for two weather stations in Wayne County, at Lyons and 
Sodus (table 1). The station at Lyons is no longer operated, having been discontinued in 
the early part of 1908, but records are available for nearly 19 years. The station at Sodus was 
discontinued October 1931 after about 10 years of operating, but was reactivated in April 
1938. Data have been recorded continuously since that time. 


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Table I.-Temperature data, Wayne County, N. Y. 


Sodus 
1922-1931, 1938-1944 


Lyons 
1889-1908 


Alverage temperature ________________________ 
Average date of last killing frost in spring ____ 
Alverage date of first killing frost in autumn uu 
Alverage length of growing season in days uuu 
Latest date of killing frost in spring _u_u_u_ 
Earliest date of killing frost in autumn __uu__ 


47.9 
May 7 
Oct. 17 
164 
May 28 
Sept. 20 


48.3° F. 
Alpril 26 
Oct. 18 
175 
May 14 
Oct. 1 


The average annual precipitation in Wayne County is about 36 inches and ranges 
from about 21 inches in the driest years to about 45 inches in the wettest years. The 
average annual snowfall is about 70 inches. In general, the months of May, June, and July 
are the wettest, and January and February are the driest. Precipitation records have been 
obtained in Wayne County at Clyde, Macedon, Newark, Sodus, and Wolcott. The period of 
record ranges from 9 years at Wolcott to 30 years at Clyde. The greatest precipitation for 
a single month was recorded at Clyde when 10.78 inches fell during November 1927. The 
lowest monthly precipitation was recorded at Macedon when only 0.16 inch fell during' 
October 1924. Table 2 gives a summary of precipitation data from the five stations. 


Table 2.-Precipitation data, Wayne County, N. Y. 


Al verage annual 
precipitation 
(inches) 


Highest annual 
precipitation 
(inches) (year) 


Lowest annual 
precipitation 
(inches) (year) 


Wolcott _u_________________ 36.83 
Sodus _____________________ 35.53 
Macedon __u_______u____u 32.25 
Newark ____u______________ 31.36 
Clyde ______________________ 36.16 


45.28 1902 
44.66 1943 
42.82 1945 
44.16 1945 
44.96 1945 


30.98 1946 
29.00 1930 
24.65 1934 
21.66 1934 
28.00 1934 


NATURAL RESOURCES 
Although agriculture makes up the greatest part of the economy in Wayne County, 
local natural resources playa supporting role. The direct dependence of agriculture on fertile 
soil is readily apparent, and the resources of of ground water, considered later in this report, 
are of obvious importance. Sand and gravel are produced for road-surfacing and con.struc- 
tion purposes at scattered locations throughout the County, and large supplies of a mixed type 
are available in the old sandbars and offshore bars of glacial Lake Iroquois. The Lockport 
dolomite, formerly used extensively for the manufacture of lime and as a building material, 
is now used in the crushed-stone industry, and the demand has steadily increased with the 
increase in highway construction. Many of the old quarries furnished stone for building the 
locks in the Erie Canal and railroad culverts for the Ontario Division of the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad. 
Exploration for oil and gas has been carried on in the County and pockets of gas have 
been found in most wells drilled to depths of 500 feet or more. None of the wells has yielded 
amounts of gas sufficient for commercial uses, however, and future possibilities are con- 
sidered poor (Gillette, 1940, p. 156). 
Iron minerals, including pyrite, limonite, hematite, siderite, and magnetite, are com- 
mon in the rocks underlYing the area but most are too disseminated to be workable. 


9 



Hematite, the red iron oxide, was the source of all the iron mined in the first half of the 
nineteenth century. The pits at Salmon Creek, Wolcott Furnace, and Dutch Street obtained 
most of their ore from the Furnaceville iron ore of the Clinton formation. The low grade 
of the ore, together with the variable thickness and relatively high sulfur and phosphorus 
content, has tended to discourage further development. The only use that has been made 
of the iron ores from the Clinton of New York State in the past 20 years is in the manu- 
facture of paint. The hematite from the Clinton in Oneida ;,t.nd Wayne Counties has been the 
most important source of pigment in the State. In WaYne County the ore is fossiliferous 
and quite 'high in calcium and magnesium carbonates. 


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-BEARING PROPERTIES 


The rock formations in Wayne County are sedimentary and are co
ered in most 
places by unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin. The glacial deposits were originally 
distributed over the entire County and bedrock is exposed only where the glacial deposits 
have been removed by erosion. The glacial deposits of Pleistocene age range in thickness 
from a few feet to 200 feet. A generalized stratigraphic column for WaYne County is shown 
in table 3 and the bedrock geology of the County is shown on plate 2. The distribution of 
unconsolidated deposits in Wayne County is shown on plate 3. 
The bedrock in Wayne County is of Silurian age and is divided into three parts: 
lower, middle and upper. The strike of the Silurian rocks is nearly east-west and the dip is 
toward the south at about 40 feet per mile. Because of the southward dip, younger rocks 
are exposed progressively southward. The lower part of the Silurian rocks is exposed in 
the extreme northern part of the County a:rid is represented by the Albion sandstone. Only 
the upper beds of the sandstone are exposed at the surface as the lower beds are covered 
by Lake Ontario. The central part of the County is underlain by strata of the middle part 
of the Silurian. Rocks of this age represented in Wayne County by the Niagara group, 
which consists of the Clinton formation at the base and the overlying Lockport dolomite. 
The upper part of the Silurian of New York State is divided into the Salina formation and 
the Cobleskill, Rondout, and Manlius limestone. Only the oldest of these, the Salina for- 
mation, extends into Wayne County. The Salina formation consists of the Pittsford shale 
member, the Vernon shale member, the Syracuse salt member, the Camillus shale member, 
and the Bertie limestone member, of which only the Vernon and Camillus have been defi- 
nitely recognized in the County. 


CONSOLIDATED ROCKS 
Albion Sandstone 
The Albion sandstone includes all the rocks between the underlying Queenston shale 
and the overlying Clinton formation (Kindle and Taylor, 1913, p. 6). The name is taken 
from the town of Albion in Orleans County where it is conspicuously exposed. Only the upper 
beds of the Albion sandstone are exposed in Wayne County (pI. 2) and these consist mainly 
of thick red layers of sandstone interbedded with a few thin layers of red sandy shale. A 
pebbly layer is encountered in some places. The Albion may be mottled by light-green spots 
where it underlies layers of green sandstone. The mottled zones usually are in the upper 20 
feet of the Albion sandstone, and the green bands generally cut across the normal bedding 
of the strata. Hall (1843, p. 38) thought that the ferric iron in the redbeds had been reduced 
to ferrous iron by the action of decaying vegetable matter, thus producing the greenish zones. 


10 



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Certain features of the Albion sandstone, such as mud cracks, ripple marks, and worm 
burrows, suggest a shallow-water origin. 
The Albion sandstone in Wayne County cannot be considered a prolific aquifer, and 
many wells in this sandstone yield water that is unsatisfactory in quality as well as in quantity. 
The porosity of the sandstone has been reduced because the sand grains composing the massive 
sandstone layers are somewhat angular and are well compacted and cemented. 
The j oint system of the Albion sandston
 is poorly defined. Three sets of joints are 
found but they are irregular fractures which are widened only slightly. A few major joints 
carry moderate amounts of water and are responsible for most of the springs that issue 
from the sandstone. When iron ore at the base of the Clinton formation was being strip- 
mined north of the village of Ontario, many joints were exposed. While being worked the 
pits were pumped continuously, but since the close of the mining operations they have 
become filled with water. 
Records are available of 32 drilled wells tapping the Albion sandstone. The wells aver- 
age 63 feet in depth. Almost without exception, satisfactory wells drilled into the Albion 
sandstone penetrate less than 30 feet of sandstone after passing through glacial cover. Wells 
drilled deeper into the sandstone may encounter saline water unfit for domestic use. The 
glacial cover ranges in thickness from a few feet in the northwestern part of the County to 
more than 100 feet in a few wells in the eastern part, the average thickness penetrated being 
38 feet. In general, where it is fairly thick the cover itself presents greater possibility of an 
adequate supply of water than the underlying sandstone. At many sites good supplies can be 
obtained at the drift-bedrock contact. Where the glacial cover is only a few feet thick suffi- 
cient water for domestic needs can probably be obtained by digging a large-diameter well 
through the glacial cover and into the bedrock. 
Yield data are reported for 20 of the 32 wells for which records are available. The 
yields average 10 gallons per minute (gpm) but it is believed that this figure is misleading. 
Many of the wells for which figures are not available have been abandoned because of low 
yield or high mineral content of the water. The highest yield reported from the sandstone is 
30 gpm from well Wn 54, which is northwest of the village of Williamson (pI. 1). This well 
extends 20 feet into the Albion sandstone after penetrating 14 feet of glacial cover and it is 
probable that the well intersects one of the large joints. There seems to be little possibility 
of any large supply of water being obtained from the Albion sandstone in Wayne County. 
The source of the saline water in the Albion sandstone presents somewhat of a problem 
as there are no salt deposits in the sandstone. This may be connate water, that is, water that 
was trapped in the sandstone at the time of deposition. Fresh water is found generally in the 
upper beds, whereas the saline water is confined to the lower layers of the sandstone, indi- 
cating that if this is connate water some flushing has occurred in the upper 30 feet of the 
formation. 


Clinton Formation 
The Clinton formation consists of alternating beds of shale and limestone. It is the basal 
formation of the Niagara group and includes all the beds that lie between the top of the 
Albion sandstone and the base of the Lockport dolomite. In WaYDe County the Clinton forma- 
tion is about 270 feet thick and is divided into six members, as follows: 


12 



Members of the Clinton formation 


Member 


Remarks 


Rochester shale 


Approximate 
thickness 
(feet) 
125 


Irondequoit limestone 


30 


Williamson shale 
Wolcott limestone 


25 
15 


Sodus shale 


60 


Reynales limestone 


15 


Gray to black. A resistant rock that forms the lip of many 
waterfalls in the Wayne County region. (Gillette, 1940, 
p. 90.) 
Light gray. Contains much pyrite and some galena. 
Thickness and limestone content increase and shale 
content decreases eastward. (Gillette, 1940, p. 79.) 
Olive green. Contains much pyrite. (Gillette, 1940, p. 77.) 
Gray. Contains layers of hematite (iron ore). (Newland 
and Hartnagel, 1908.) 
Purple and green. Contains "pearly" limestone layers. 
Thickness increases eastward. (N ewland and Hart- 
nagel, 1908.) 
Bluish gray. Shale content increases and limestone con- 
tent decreases eastward. Contains layers of hematite 
(iron ore). (Newland and Hartnagel, 1908.) 


All the members of the Clinton formation are calcareous rocks and for the most part 
contain an abundance of marine fossils. Brachiopods are very common in the older members 
of the Clinton, Pentamerus oblongus predominating in both the Reynales and Wolcott lime- 
stone members and Coelospira hemispherica in limestone layers of the Sodus shale member. 
The Reynales and Wolcott limestone members contain several thin layers of iron ore (hema- 
tite), which once were mined extensively. Most of the abandoned ore pits are now filled with 
water. One of these pits, about a mile north of the village of Ontario Center, is the source of 
water supply for the village. 
Records were collected for 36 drilled wells .and 1 dug well that draw water from the 
Clinton formation. The average depth of these wells is 67 feet, 30 feet through glacial cover 
and 37 feet into bedrock. Many wells obtain water from both the shale and the limestone, but 
wells drawing water exclusively from the limestone usually have a greater average yield than 
do wells that tap only the shale. Yields of from 25 to 30 gallons per minute have been reported 
for a few wells in the Clinton formation. Well Wn 182, half a mile north of the village of 
Wolcott (pI. 1), is reported to have been pumped at a rate of 30 gpm. This well entered bedrock 
(Rochester shale member) at 35 feet and was completed at a depth of 215 feet, probably in the 
Sodus shale member. Water was first encountered at 40 feet, and little additional water was 
obtained from there to the bottom of the hole. Most of the water is probably coming from the 
upper few feet of the Rochester shale member. The well was abandoned, as a minimum yield 
of 80 gpm was desired. 
Well Wn 59, 13,4 miles northeast of Williamson, is also reported to yield 30 gpm. The 
well penetrates 41 feet of the Sodus shale member after passing through 15 feet of glacial 
cover. The shale portion of the Sodus member yields water very slowly and the water is 
probably coming from the "pearly" limestone layers. 
The yields mentioned above are the highest reported from the Clinton formation. 
Smaller yields, however, ranging down to quantities insufficient for domestic use, are reported 
more frequently. Small-diameter wells drilled into the shale may not yield adequate water for 
domestic purposes. Under these circumstances large-diameter wells might supply a more satis- 
factory quantity of water. Well Wn 56, 3 miles northeast of the village of Williamson (pI. 1), 


13 



is the only dug well known to end in the Clinton formation. This well is dug 11 feet into the 
Sodus shale member after passing through 5 feet of glacial cover. The well is 36 inches in 
diameter and an adequate yield of 3 gpm is reported. Over 500 gallons of water a day is pumped 
during the fruit season when the water is used for spraying. 
Although the shale of the Clinton formation yields water slowly, under certain condi- 
tions it may yield a satisfactory supply. Several farm pools which furnish enough water for 
stock have been dug into the shale of the Clinton in the northwestern section of the County. 
In this section the shale is overlain by only a few feet of till and digging is fairly easy. The 
author observed the construction of one of these farm pools in which the aquifer was the 
Sodus shale member. The pit, about 20 feet in diameter, was dug through 3 feet of glacial 
cover and 7 feet of shale. The pool received water slowly, and after 2 days it contained about 
a foot of water, which was enough for the few head of stock to be watered. 
In general, the Clinton formation in Wayne County will furnish enough water for the 
domestic needs at small farms. The maximum yield of the Clinton is about 30 gpm and there 
is little possibility of developing larger amounts from this formation that would be satis- 
factory for industrial or public-supply purposes. 
The Clinton formation contains some salty water but most wells ending in the upper 
part of the formation yield water suitable for human consumption. Water from the shale of 
this formation tends to be slightly softer than that from the limestone. Water from the 
Rochester shale member of the Clinton formation contains hydrogen sulfide, a result of con- 
tamination by the highly sulfurous water that occurs in the overlying Lockport dolomite. The 
Clinton is the only formation in the County with beds of iron ore. Analyses of 6 water samples 
from the Clinton show a range in iron from .1 part per million to 3.0 parts per million and an 
average content of 1.11 parts per million. This is slightly higher than the average iroD. content 
of water analyzed from the other formations. 


Lockport Dolomite 
The Lockport dolomite is the youngest formation of the Niagara group in Wayne 
County and directly overlies the Rochester shale member of the Clinton formation. Owing 
to its resistant character, the Lockport dolomite tends to form ledges, and consequently 
exposures are numerous. The most extensive exposure of the Lockport in Wayne County is 
in a road-metal quarry about 11;2 miles southwest of Sodus Center. Approxim,ately 45 feet 
of the Lockport dolomite is exposed at this locality but the total thickness of the formation 
is about 150 feet. 
The Lockport is composed chiefly of layers of massive coarsely crystalline dolomite 
interbedded in some places with thin layers of shale. The fresh rock is dark gray to black, 
but upon weathering it changes to a light brown. The basal bed of the Lockport dolomite is 
a siliceous dolomite interbedded with dark shale which grades into the underlying Rochester 
shale member of the Clinton formation. 
The Lockport dolomite yields larger quantities of water than either the Albion sand- 
stone or the Clinton formation. Although most of the dolomite is massive and thick-bedded, 
the rock is well jointed and many of the joints have been enlarged by solution. Ground water 
flows quite freely through these joints and along the bedding planes. 
Records were collected for 54 drilled wells that obtain water from the Lockport dolo- 
mite. The average depth of the wells is 86 feet and the average depth to bedrock is 48 feet. 
The average yield of 39 wells for which yields were reported is 33 gallons per minute and 5 of 
the wells yield over 100 gpm. 


14 



The highest yield reported from the dolomite in Wayne County is 300 gpm. This yield 
is from Wn 75, a quarter of a mile north of the village of Marion (pI. 1). The well penetrates 
the Lockport dolomite for 21 feet after passing through 15 feet of glacial cover. The water, 
which is used in cooling condensers, is reported to be hard. 
Another well, Wn 74, just north of well Wn 75 and at approximately the same altitude, 
is reported to obtain 250 gpm from the Lockport dolomite. This well is 31 feet deep and pene- 
trates 17 feet of bedrock. It seems probable that the wells obtain water from the same beds in 
the dolomite. 
The mineral sphalerite (zinc sulfide) is present in the Lockport. For many wells 
where the hydrogen sulfide is not noticeable, the water is reported to have a high sulfate 
content and high noncarbonate hardness. The sulfurous water is not restricted to anyone 
area, but seemingly is present throughout the Lockport dolomite. 
In summary, the Lockport dolomite in Wayne County will usually yield a sufficient 
quantity of water for domestic use, and in places more than 100 gpm. The water, however, 
usually has a high noncarbonate hardness and contains hydrogen sulfide. 


Salina Formation 
In Wayne County, the Salina formation is represented by only two of its members, the 
Camillus shale member and the Vernon shale member. The older Vernon shale member over- 
lies the Lockport dolomite and is, in turn, overlain by the Camillus shale member. According 
to Gillette (1940, pp. 102, 104, 107), these two members of the Salina formation are very 
similar in physical properties and color. Both are soft, weak rocks and both contain layers of 
mottled gray, green, and red shale. 
The Vernon shale member and the Camillus shale member have been penetrated by gas 
wells in the vicinity of Clyde and Alloway, in Wayne County. The wells encountered salt water 
but, according to Newland and Hartnagel, (1932, pp. 150-151) did not encounter the salt bed 
of the Syracuse salt member of the Salina formation, which in areas adjacent to Wayne 
County lies between the Vernon and the Gamillus shale members. The information obtained 
by Newland and Hartnagel (1932) indicates that in Wayne County the Salina formation is 
from 550 to 600 feet thick. 
Records were obtained of 101 wells drawing water from the Salina formation. All are 
drilled wells and the average depth is 100 feet. The amount of glacial material overlying the 
Salina formation ranges from a few feet in the southwestern portion of the County to 175 
feet in the southeastern part. The average thickness of glacial cover penetrated is 60 feet and 
the average penetration into bedrock is 40 feet. 
The average yield of all wells in the Salina formation for which records were obtained 
is 31 gallons per minute. There are four wells in this formation that are reported to yield 
more than 100 gpm. Three of these are near the village of Macedon in the southwestern part 
of the County and the fourth is in the town of Newark in the Fairport-Lyons glacial channel. 
The highest yield reported is 400 gpm, from well Wn 11 (pI. 1, 8K, 12.2S, 5.8W). 
This well, drilled to a depth of 120 feet, encountered shale of the Salina formation at 51 feet. 
An analysis of the water shows a hardness of 1,900 parts per million (ppm) and, because of 
this limiting factor, the water is now being used only to wash celery. 
Well Wn 24 is very near well Wn 11 and is used in the same celery washing process. 
This well is drilled to a depth of 100 feet and encounters bedrock at 50 feet. The water from 
well Wn 24 also has a hardness of 1,900 ppm but contains slightly less iron and chloride than 
does the water from well Wn 11. 


15 



Well Wn 23, east of Macedon, has a reported YIeld of 200 gpm. This well is. 100 feet 
deep and enters the shale of the Salina formation at a depth of 30 feet. The water is reported 
to be very hard and is used for cooling. 
Well Wn 318, about a mile north of Newark in the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream 
channel, is the fourth well in the Salina formation that has a reported yield of more than 
100 gpm. It is 54 feet deep and enters bedrock at 30 feet. Its reported Yield is 250 gpm. The 
water is reported to be very hard and to contain both hydrogen sulfide and iron. 
The high mineral content of water from the Salina formation makes it unsatisfac- 
tory for all but a few uses. Undesirable amounts of hydrogen sulfid€, salt, and iron are gen- 
erally found in the water. Salt layers are known to exist in the Salina formation in Wayne 
County, and wells in these yield brine. Layers of gypsum (hydrous calcium sulfate) are re- 
sponsible for the high noncarbonate hardness. Only a few wells produce water that is of 
satisfactory quality for domestic and industrial uses. All these wells penetrate less than 30 
feet of bedrock. The quantity of water produced is usually sufficient for average domesti
 
use, but would fall far short of meeting the demands of industry or of a public-water supply. 
The deeper wells generally yield larger quantities of water but the water has a high mineral 
content. 


UNCONSOLIDATED DEPOSITS 
Glacial Drift (Pleistocene) 
Most of the surface of Wayne County is mantled by a layer of glacial drift deposited 
during Pleistocene time. In some places the bedrock is at or near the surface whereas in other 
areas drilling has revealed a thickness of as much as 200 feet of glacial cover. The average 
thickness of this cover, estimated from the records of wells that strike bedrock, is about 40 feet. 
The character of the glacial deposits ranges from relatively impermeable till to coarse, well- 
sorted, highly permeable sand and gravel. 
Ground moraine.-Extensive deposits of ground moraine are found in the glacial-Iake- 
plain area. in the northern part of the County (pI. 3). Ground moraine is material deposited 
- when the glacier stagnated and melted and it is a relatively thin layer of till overlying the 
bedrock. The material is known to the drillers locally as "hardpan," because it has a high 
content of clay and is partly consolidated. 
Many wells in Wayne County are dug in ground moraine. The till Yields water slowly 
and all the wells in it are reported to have very low yields, many of them going dry during 
periods of light precipitation when the water table sinks below the bottom of the well. Records 
were obtained of 25 wells in till; of these, 8 are of drilled wells and 17 are of dug wells. The 
average depth of the wells is 38 feet and the average yield is a fraction of a gallon per minute. 
Glacial-lake deposits.-The most prominent of the glacial-lake deposi
s of Wayne County 
are beaches and sand bars. These were formed at the edge of the glacial lakes that occupied 
parts of the area during Pleistocene time. The most prominent beach is the one in the northern 
part of the County along U. S. Highway 104 (pI. 3). From the western edge of the County 
to a point just east of Sodus, the beach is well defined. From there it swings southeastward 
and becomes exceedingly difficult to trace. The beaches and associated sand bars contain fairly 
well stratified layers of sand which show numerous examples of cross bedding. 
Sands of lacustrine origin, though very fine in texture, are much more permeable than 
the clays of like origin. The sands yield water readily to dug wells and also permit recovery 
by driven wells of quantities sufficient for household use. Dug wells Wn 38, Wn 479, and Wn 
480 (table 7) are constructed in glacial-beach deposits. 
Drumlins.-Drumlins are the most prominent evidence of glaciation in Wayne County 


16 



and are readily recognized by their characteristic elliptical shape, in which there is a fairly 
steep slope to the north and a more gentle slope to the south. The long axes of the drumlins 
lie parallel to the direction in which the ice moved and in Wayne County this was slightly east 
of south (pI. 3). The drumlins range in size from very small knolls to hills that rise more than 
200 feet above the floors of parallel valleys and that are more than 2 miles long. The internal 
structure of the drumlins is exposed at many places in Wayne County. The material of which 
drumlins are composed is a heterogeneous mixture of ice-laid sediments of all sizes, ranging 
from clay, silt, and sand to boulders. In the southern part of Wayne County, in the area under- 
lain by the Salina formation, many of the elliptical hills have a core of rock. The core is com- 
posed of the soft shales of the Salina formation and is overlain by a thin layer of till. These 
have been named "rocdrumlins" by Fairchild (1907, p. 413). According to Fairchild (1907, 
p. 415) "rocdrumlins" are not as symmetrical as the drumlins to the north. 
Neither the drumlins nor the rocdrumlins are important as waterbearers for they are 
relatively impermeable and are generally situated above the water table. . 
Kames, eskers, and deltas.-Although not as numerous as the drumlins, kames and 
eskers are common in the area. The kames were formed by deposition from glacial streams 
as they poured over the edge of the glacier or into crevasses. These deposits are now small 
rounded generally solitary hills of stratified material, formed at what then was the margin 
of the glacial ice. Eskers are long narrow ridges of poorly sorted glacial material thought to 
have been deposited by glacial streams flowing under the ice. A delta may be formed at the 
downstream end of an esker. The material composing the esker is crudely stratified and dips 
away from the axis of the esker. The many small eskers in Wayne County generally trend 
southward in surprisingly straight courses but do not extend for great distances. In the few 
places where they have been trenched, stream stratification is clearly visible. 
N either kames nor eskers are of much importance as sources of water because they 
are generally at altitudes well above the water table or at altitudes below which the water table 
sinks during a dry spell. 
Several deltas, deposited where proglacial streams entered bodies of water, are easily 
recogni-zed in Wayne County where they have been exposed in gravel pits. They are crudely 
stratified deposits and show the top-set, fore-set, and bottom-set beds that are characteristic 
of deltaic deposits. Many small deltas are exposed along the flanks of the Fairport-Lyons 
glacial-stream channel. Deltaic deposits, like those of the kames and eskers, are generally 
at too high an altitude to contain important perennial supplies of ground water. 
Glacial-stream deposits.-Layers of sorted materials were produced in Wayne County 
by glacial streams that reworked the unstratified till, selectively sorting this material and 
depositing in layers particles of nearly the same size, such as gravel, sand, and clay. Clay is 
relatively impermeable and is not generally considered to be water-bearing material. In fact, 
beds of clay confine water in underlying water-bearing material under hydrostatic pressure. 
Although deposits of outwash sand and gravel are found in other parts of the County, the 
most extensive deposits laid down by glacial streams seem to be in the Fairport-Lyons channel 
(fig. 2). 


The Fairport-Lyons channel was once the outlet for glacial Lake Dawson, which occu- 
pied the Genesee Valley near Rochester during the Ice Age. When the ice sheet retreated so 
as to uncover the outlet at Fairport the waters of the lake swept eastward through Fairport, 
Macedon, Newark, Lyons, and Clyde into glacial Lake Montezuma, which was situated about 
at the present site of Lake Cayuga. Data fro-'Y\ deeper wells indicate that the eastward flow 
of glacial waters carved a relatively shallow valley in the bedrock beneath the present chan- 
nel. Since then this bedrock valley has been filled with glacial-outwash material. Well and 


17 



boring records indicate that the unconsolidated material in the channel consists mainly of clay 
and silt, interbedded in irregular fashion with lenses of sand gravel. 
The deposits of glacial sand and gravel furnish the only large supplies of water satis- 
factory for general use in Wayne County. Records were obtained of 82 wells that draw water 
from glacial gravel. Of these, 47 were drilled, 32 were dug, and 3 were driven. The average 
depth of the wells is 46 feet and the average yield is 103 gpm-. 
The highest reported yield of any well in Wayne County is 1,200 gpm, from well Wn 45, 
half a mile north of Newark. This well, 50 feet deep, passed through a layer of coarse gravel 
and encountered sand at 50 feet. The well was started with a diameter of 36 inches and bot- 
tomed in the gravel with a diameter of 18 inches. The well is finished with a 6-inch screen 
and a gravel pack. This well is drawing its water from the gravel in the Fairport-Lyons 
glacial-stream channel. The water is reported to be hard and is used as process water in a 
paper mill.- 
Wn 221, just east of the village of Lyons, is also drawing water from the stratified gravel 
in the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel. The well was originally drilled to a depth of 
97 feet where it encountered salt water in shale of the Salina formation. The well was then 
filled with concrete up to the 67-foot level and the casing perforated opposite a layer of gravel 
which overlies the bedrock. The yield is reported at 600 gpm and the well has been pumped 
continuously at this rate for 36 hours. It is used as an auxiliary supply for the village of 
Lyons. 
Another well drawing water from the gravel of the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream 
channel is Wn 242. This well is owned by the Rochester and Lake Ontario Water Service 
Corp. and is used as the public supply for the village of Clyde. It is a dug well 22 feet in 
depth and, 20 feet in width. The yield is reported to be 280 gpm. 
Wells for the village of Newark (Wn 244 and Wn 245) also draw water from the 
Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel, as does a well owned by the Newark Cold Storage 
Co. (Wn. 46). Yields from these wells range from 100 to 400 gpm. 
A few wells of large yield are found in gravel deposits outside the Fairport-Lyons 
channel. Well Wn 37, which has been developed south of the village of Sodus, is screened 
in a 10-foot bed of medium to coarse gravel. A yield of 400 gpm from this well has been 
reported. Three and one-half miles east of the village of Wolcott, well Wn 215 obtains 
water from a gravel layer for the Harold Sheahan Farms. This well is 68 feet deep and 14 
inches in diameter and has a reported yield of 110 gpm. 
Fairchild (1925, p. 33) advanced the theory that prior to the glacial period a 
large river occupied a channel between Seneca Lake and Sodus Bay. Nowell-defined chan- 
nel, however, has been found in the area. The greatest thickness of drift in the County 
does lie near where this valley has been postulated, but the actual existence of the valley is 
still questionable. If such a valley is present, it may contain stratified materials which might 
furnish an abundant supply of water. 
Alluvium (Recent) 
Deposits of geologically recent time include sand and silt along the broad valley flats, 
and a variable thickness of soils and mantle rocks scattered elsewhere over the County. 
These materials are formed by decomposition and disintegration of the underlying rock for- 
mations and commonly are not transported far. Fine-grained sediments, however, are left 
by flood waters along the lowlands bordering the major streams and locally at the base of 
eroded slopes. These sediments are comparatively thin in Wayne County and for the purpose 
of this report are grouped with the glacial drift of Pleistocene age. 


18 



A deposit quite important agriculturally is the soil of the muck lands. This soil rep- 
resents the last remnants of glacial lakes in the area. The lakes were slowly filled with 
organic matter, forming the present rich muck soil. Muck areas are numerous in Wayne 
County and they range greatly in areal extent (pl. 3). Some are the remains of small 
lakes, whereas others represent the locations of the large glacial lakes, Montezuma and 
Iroquois. 


GROUND WATER 


SOURCE 
Water that flows from wells and springs or can be pumped from wells is known as 
ground water. Most of the ground water in Wayne County is derived from that small part. 
of the local precipitation that percolates into the ground. The water in most shallow wells 
and springs is that which fell on the surface nearby, but water from the deep artesian wells 
may have migrated through water-bearing formations several miles from the outcrops of 
the formations. An inch of water falling on 1 square mile amounts to more than 17,000,000 
gallons; thus more than 610,000,000 gallons is received by each square mile where the 
precipitation is 36 inches a year. Only a small percentage of the total local precipitation, 
therefore, is required to keep most of the water-bearing strata filled. The water, once it 
reaches a water-bearing formation, percolates slowly to areas of discharge-it flows from 
springs, seeps into streams, is evaporated where the water table is shallow, or is withdrawn 
from wells. 


OCCURRENCE 
The amount of ground water that is contained by rocks below the surface depends 
upon the characteristics of the openings in the rocks. The size, number, shape, and arrange- 
ment of these openings differs in each of the many types of rock; thus local occurrence of 
ground water is dependent upon the geology. The number and size of openings in a rock 
determine its porosity, or the percentage of the volume of the rock that is occupied by open- 
ings. A rock is saturated when all these openings, or pores, are filled. If the openings are 
not interconnected or are very small, as in clay, the rock may be saturated but it does not 
yield appreciable amounts of water to wells. The permeability or capacity for transmitting 
fluids under pressure is therefore an important factor in determining the water-bearing 
property of a rock. 
The permeability of the rocks of Wayne County depends to a large extent on the 
lithology. The unconsolidated materials that were deposited by streams or in ponded bodies 
of water following the retreat of the continental ice sheet comprise relatively distinct beds 
of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The moderately well sorted gravels have a relatively high 
permeability and yield comparatively large quantities of water. 
Sandstone, which is more or less firmly cemented beds of sand, differs in permeability 
,according to the difference in size and assortment of the grains, and the amount and character 
of the cementing material. The beds of limestone and dolomite are relatively impervious 
except for fractures and solution openings. As these rocks are comparatively soluble in water 
that contains common dissolved gases, especially carbon dioxide, fractures and openings along 
bedding planes are enlarged readily to channels. Thus, the permeability differs greatly and 
somewhat erratically from place to place. The yield of wells depends upon the number and 
size of the water-bearing openings that are encountered. Shale, which is largely indurated 
clay, contains such small pore openings that it yields little water to wells, except from 
open bedding planes and joints in shales that are sufficiently indurated to support such 
openings. 


19 



MOVEMENT AND STORAGE 
Water is found beneath the surface of the ground in two zones, these being separated 
by the water table. The zone above the water table is known as the zone of aeration, and 
water in this zone is termed suspended water (Meinzer, 1923b, pp. 21-23). The zone whose 
surface is the water table is the zone of saturation and water in this zone is termed ground 
water. 


Water in the zone of aeration does not completely saturate the rock or soil material 
and is held by molecular attraction so that generally it cannot be withdrawn through wells. 
In the zone of aeration, percolation of water is mainly downward. Water in this zone is 
divided (in downward order) into soil water, intermediate water, and capillary fringe water. 
Other things being equal, the belt of soil water varies in thickness with the nature of the soil 
and the type of vegetation, and is the zone of active root development. Water from this 
belt may be lost upward by evaporation and transportation, the latter being the process by 
which plants take water from the soil with their root systems and discharge it as moisture 
into the air. Water in the intermediate belt either moves downward under the action of 
gravity into the capillary fringe or is held in place by molecular action. The capillary fringe 
lies directly above the water table and contains water that is drawn upward by capillary 
action into small openings of the zone of aeration. 
In the zone of saturation, ground water fills all pores and openings and is controlled 
by the force of gravity. The ground water is capable of lateral movement in the direction of 
least pressure and the direction of movement is usually down the dip of the water-bearing 
bed or aquifer. 
Wells that obtain water from aquifers not separated from the water table by rela- 
tively impermeable beds-that is, aquifers having a water surface are termed water-table 
wells. The configuration of the water table conforms roughly to the configuration of the land 
surface. As a result, the water table is an undulating surface that is higher beneath hills 
than it is in the valleys. Because of the difference in hydrostatic head between the ridges, 
called ground-water divides, and the troughs, ground water moves continuously from hilly 
areas toward valleys, where it is discharged at the land surface through seeps or springs. 
This continuous discharge of ground water is the source of most of the dry-weather flow of 
streams. 
A perched water body is a local phenomenon resulting from a bed of impervious 
material lying between the surface of the ground and the main water table. Water collects 
above the impervious layer until the overlying material is saturated. The upper surface of 
this local zone of saturation is known as a perched water table. Perched water is available 
to wells but the supply is limited. 
Confined ground water is water below the level of the water table that is cut off 
from the water table by an impervious layer. The impervious layer prevents the ground 
water from rising to the normal water-table level and consequently this confined water is 
under pressure. Water enters the confined aquifer where the impervious layer ends or the 
aquifer crops out. When a well penetrates through the impervious layer, the confined water rises 
in the well under the pressure built up by the difference in head between intake and dis- 
charge areas. This pressure may cause the water to rise above the ground, resulting in a 
flowing well. Any well that penetrates a confined aquifer and in which the water rises to a 
level above the confined surface of the aquifer, whether or not the water flows at the land 
surface, is termed an artesian well. 
Artesian conditions in Wayne County are present only in the gravels and in the 
underlying shales of the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel. Several of the wells in 


20 



this channel are flowing wells and in others the water rises to within a few feet of the 
ground surface. A number of artesian wells in the vicinities of Macedon, Lyons, and Newark 
yield large amounts of water (Wn 11, Wn 23, Wn 24, Wn 221, Wn 244, Wn 245, Wn 545 and Wn 
546). Artesian conditions in the Oounty outside the Fairport-Lyons channel are confined pri- 
marily to local areas of gravel, and yields are moderate. Information was not available concern- 
ing the head of flowing wells either in terms of pressure or height to which water will rise in a 
pipe above the land surface. 


12 


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Figure 4.-Month-end water levels in observation well Wn 29 at Marion and monthly precipitation 
at Macedon. 


21 



WATER LEVELS 
Natural Fluctuations 
The water table and the level to which artesian water will rise (piezometric surface) 
vary seasonally and annually with variations in precipitation, runoff, withdrawals by wells, 
transpiration, evaporation, and other related factors. The water level rises when storage 
in the aquifer is increased. When ground water is being discharged from the aquifer faster 
than it is being recharged to the aquifer, storage is decreased and the water level drops. 
The water level in a well is continuous with the water table surrounding the well or, in an 
artesian well, represents the piezometric surface. The character and magnitude of the 
water-level fluctuations, therefore, may be determined from periodic measurements in ob- 
servation wells. These fluctuations are an indication of the net change in ground-water storage 
resulting from various forces and processes acting upon the aquifer in somewhat the same 
Manner as changes in the water level in surface reservoirs indicate net changes in storage. 
A considerable number of water-level and other data must be available before determinations 
can be made of aquifer characteristics such as safe yield, average annual recharge, etc. 
As part of the State-wide program of investigation of ground-water resources of New 
York, a recording gage has been placed on well Wn 29, which was formerly used to supply 
water for the village of Marion. This instrument furnishes a continuous record of the water 
level in the well. Figure 4 shows the end-of-month water levels at this well from the be- 
ginning of record in December 1947 through September 1951 (as taken from recorder graphs) 
and the precipitation at Macedon during the same period. As seen on figure 4, the water 
level generally is highest during March and April and lowest during September and October, 
even though precipitation is more or less evenly distributed. This is because a large part 
of the precipitation received during the growing season is used by plants or is evaporated. 
Well Wn 29 taps an artesian aquifer, which apparently responds less rapidly to 
periods of rainfall than do shallow water-table aquifers. The small peaks in the record 
(fig. 4) lag somewhat behind periods of heavy precipitation. Mention should be made of 
the unusually high peak which occurred near the end of March 1950. The continuous record 
on the original recorder chart shows the water level rose almost 7 feet from noon March 29 
to noon March 30, then declined more than 8 feet during the following 7 days. It is believed 
that this rise was due, in part, to rain and to the melting of an unusually large amount of 
snow that was on the ground during the week preceding March 29. 
Figure 5 is a continuous hydrograph of well Wn 29 covering a period of 8 days during 
the months of August and September 1948, when the water level was dropping rapidly. 
It is interesting to note the abrupt fluctuations at nearly the same time every day. The 
tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad are located about 200 yards east of this well and the 
fluctuations occur at the time trains pass over the tracks. It is evident, therefore, that the 
weight and impact of the trains compresses the aquifer sufficiently to cause the water-level 
rises noted in the well. The water returns to its original level, however, once the train 
loading is gone. The hydrograph also shows fluctuations' of the water table caused by other 
forces operating on it; one, the daily rise and fall as rate of evaporation and transpiration 
changes, and the other, effect of solar and lunar attraction. 
The normal seasonal fluctuation of about 2.5 ft. in Wn 29 appears to be about average for 
wells in valley areas of Wayne County. Wells in hillside and upland areas show considerably 
greater fluctuation. During extended dry periods the water table may drop below the 
bottom of shallow dug wells and cause the wells to go dry. These wells might produce water 
the year round if they were deepened below the minimum level of the water table. . 


22 



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Pumping test, Lyons, N. Y. 
By E. S. SIMPSON 
Relation between bedrock and gravel aquifers
In February 1950, a pumping test 
was conducted by the village of Lyons to obtain data on the yield and salinity of a village 
brine well (Wn 546) and to ascertain what effect, if any, pumping the brine well had on the 
village fresh-water wells (Wn 221 and Wn 545). In the course of the test it was possible 
for the Geological Survey to obtain data on water levels, during the pumping of both fr
sh- 
water well Wn 221 and the brine well, by means of recording gages installed temporarily 
over the brine well and over well Wn 545. 
The relative location of the three wells is shown on figure 6 and all are within the 
Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel now partly filled with stratified deposits of clay, 
sand, and gravel. The two fresh-water wells penetrate only the glacial deposits. Well Wn 
221 is 8 inches in diameter and originally was drilled approximately 32 feet into bedrock. 
It encountered water unsuitable because of a high-chloride content and approximately 30 
feet of concrete was poured into the well to seal it up to a depth of 67 feet below the land 
surface. An unsuccessful attempt was then made to cut slots in the well casing opposite a 
stratum of water-bearing gravel 52 to 62 feet below land surface. Finally, the lower section 
of the casing was shattered by dynamite and the well has been used in this condition since 
1944. Wn 545 was drilled in 1949 and is equipped with 10-inch casing to a depth of 57 feet 
and with 8-inch slotted casing opposite a water-bearing gravel at 57 to 61 feet. The two 
fresh water wells thus tap what appears to be the same stratum of gravel. The brine well 


N. 


Wn 221 
(FRESH WATER WELL I) 


W., 545 
(FRESH-WATER WELL 2) 
o 


Wn 546 
(NATURAL BRINE WELL) 
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...-TO LYONS (O.4MILE) 


NEW YORK STATE ROUTE 31 


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APPROXIMATE SCALE 


Figure b.-Plan of well field at Lyons, N. Y. 


24 



is 8 to 6 inches in diameter and penetrates the underlying Salina formation to a total depth 
of 371 feet. Water from the overlying glacial deposits is prevented fro
 entering the well by 
a casing which is seated in bedrock at a reported depth of 210 feet below land surfaces. The 
upper surface of bedrock is at a 60-foot depth. The driller's log of each well is given in 
table 6. 


Beginning February 16, 1950, after being idle for several days, well Wn 221 was 
pumped continuously until February 19 at the rate of 520 gpm. Within 5 minutes after the 
start of pumping, the water level in this well dropped more than 29 feet (depths greater 
than 29 feet could not be measured by the installed air gage). An almost instantaneous 
response to the pumping was shown on the water-level graph of well Wn 545, but the 
decline in water level was much less than in the pumped well, as was expected. As shown 
on figure 7, the total decline of water level in. this well during pumping of well Wn 221 
was a little over 1 foot. On February 19, pumping was ended in Wn 221 and the water level 
in Wn 545 almost instantaneously recovered to near its previous level. Recovery continued 
through February 22,
 when pumping of the brine well (Wn 546) at the rate of about 250 
gpm was begun. The hydrograph of well Wn 545 (fig. 7) shows no immediate change that 
definitely may be correlated with pumping of the brine well. Nor does the hydrograph of 
the brine well during the period that the water-level record is available (February 13 to 21), 
show any significant change at the time pumping began or when pumping ended in Wn 221. 
The relative altitudes for the two hydrographs shown on figure 7 are based on levels run 
by Morrell Vrooman Engineers, Gloversville, N. Y. 
Considering the difference in static level and the apparent lack of response of either 
aquifer to pumping from the other, it is concluded that little hydraulic continuity exists 
between the two aquifers, at least on a localized basis. However, it is possible that the effects 
of continued pumping from either aquifer, over a period of months or years, would reach 
out far enough to intercept water moving in or toward the other aquifer and thus be re- 
flected in water-level changes in that aquifer. 
Permeability of gravel aquifer.-Methods have been developed to determine the 
average or field coefficientS of transmissibility (T), permeability (P), and storage (S), of 
an aquifer by means of pumping tests. The coefficient of transmissibility is defined as the 
rate of flow of water in gallons per day through a vertical strip of the aquifer 1 foot wide 
and extending the full saturated height under a hydraulic gradient of 100 percent at the 
prevailing water temperature. The field coefficient of permeability expresses discharge in 
terms of unit area instead of unit width of aquifer, and is equal to Tim, where m is the 
average thickness of the aquifer. The coefficient of storage is defined as the volume of water, 
in cubic feet, discharged from each vertical column of the aquifer with a base 1 foot square 
as the water level (or artesian head) drops 1 foot. Determinations of coefficients of trans- 
missibility and storage are dependent upon a detailed record of drawdown or recovery or 
both in at least one observation well that taps the same aquifer as the pumped well. Rate 
of discharge from the pumped well must be known, if the well does not fully penetrate 
the aquifer then the nearest observation well should be separated from the pumped well by 
a distance at least twice the thickness of the aquifer tapped, yet close enough to show a 
significant change in water level during pumping. Ideally, each well should be screened 
through the entire thickness of the acquifer tapped. Where only one observation well is 
available, the computations are dependent solely upon the Theis non-equilibrium formula 
(Ferris, 1949, pp. 231-238; Wenzel, 1942, pp. 87-89). In such a test the results cannot be 
verified, however, either by application of the Theis formula to other observation-well data, 
or by use of the Thiem equilibrium formula (Wenzel, 1942, p. 81), which requires at least 
two observation wells at different distances from the pumped wells. 


25 



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At Lyons, observation well Wn 545 was available for measurement of drawdown and 
recovery of the water level during pumping and subsequent shutdown of well Wn 221 in 
February 1950. Computations are based on the Theis nonequilibrium formula. The deriva- 
tion and other details concerning this formula are to be found in the references. cited 
above. 


Figure 8 is a semilogarithmic plot of observed drawdown and recovery of water level 
in well Wn 545, versus time from start of pumping, for drawdown, and time from end of 
pumping, for recovery. If the field conditions fulfilled the assumptions on which the Theis 
formula is predicated, and if the rate of discharge from the pumped well is held constant 
for a sufficient period of time, the semilogarithmic plot of drawdown and recovery data (fig. 
8) will approximate a straight-line curvet The slope and position of the curve determine the 
coefficients of permeability and storage of the aquifer. The direction and magnitude of any 
departure from a straight-line curve is significant in terms of departure of actual field con- 
ditions from the theoretical condition of a homogeneous isotropic and infinite' aquifer. Or- 
dinarily the most significant departures from a straight-line curve will occur as the cone of 
influence, which results from pumping, intercepts impermeable boundaries of the aquifer 
or intercepts sources of recharge to the aquifer, or both. Interception of an impermeable 
boundary is reflected in an increased slope of the curve whereas interception of a source of 
recharge prompts a decrease in the slope. 
Even though boundaries of the types mentioned above may ultimately change the 
slope of the curve, it is usually possible to develop an initial portion or "limb" devoid of 
these effects that will permit determination of the coefficients of transmissibility and storage 
of the aquifer. On figure 8 a straight-line portion is shown, drawn with the help of additional 
analysis based on a log-log plot of the data which is not given in this report. Computations 
based on the straight-line portion of figure 8 give values of 860,000 gpd/ft for the coefficient 
of transmissibility (T) and 2.2 x 10- 5 for the coefficient of storage (S). 
For the sake of making comparisons, it is usually convenient to convert T to P, by 
means of the relationship P == Tim. In this manner the effect of aquifer thickness is eliminated, 
but the average saturated thickness m of the aquifer must be known. The logs given for 
wells Wn 221 and Wn 545 (table 6) do not correlate closely. Therefore, it will be necessary 
to estimate a thickness, based on these logs, that appears reasonable. According to the log, the 
principal water-bearing gravel tapped by Wn 221 is 10 feet thick and occurs 52 feet to 62 
feet below land surface. The log of well Wn 545 may not indicate the full depth ,of the gravel 
encountered at depth 57 feet to 61 feet, nor does it indicate the relative water-bearing 
properties of the brown sand encountered at depths 53 feet to 57 feet. Therefore, lacking 
more complete data, and for the sake of approximate computation, the average thickness of 
the aquifer will be taken as 10 feet. Thus by substituting in the equation 


P == T/m == 860,000 == 86,000 gpd/ft 2 
.10 
On a comparative basis this value for the coefficient of permeability is high and indicates 
a clean and open gravel. 
The low order of magnitude of the coefficient of storage (S) indicates artesian 
conditions. 
It should be remembered that the values of T and P are not of themselves measures 
of the maximum rate at which ground water may be withdrawn. The effects of impermeable 
boundaries and/or sources of recharge must also be considered. This cannot be done on the 
basis of the available data. 


27 



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RECOVERY 


Principles of recovery from wells 
The site for a well, the method of construction, and the type of pump can be deter- 
mined most readily by application of the general principles of recovery of ground water to 
local conditions. A site should be decided upon after consideration of the local occurrence 
of water as may be inferred from records of nearby wells, exposed rocks, and topographic 
features. Convenience and possible sources of pollution also bear importantly on the loca- 
tion. In general, wells to obtain water from alluvial valley deposits should be located at a 
distance from the valley walls, and dug wells in upland areas should be located in thick 
deposits of soil and mantle rock, generally in local depressions, where they will drain the 
greatest possible area. The occurrence of water in the deeper consolidated rock formations 
depends upon local conditions of geologic structure and stratigraphy; these factors com- 
monly are not reflected in local topographic features. Where the cost of the Water supply 
is sufficiently great, test wells to determine the character and yield of the rocks are of value 
both in preventing costly failures and in providing data for designing well specifications 
and well-field layout. 
When water is pumped from a well, the difference in head between the water in the 
well and the water in the material surrounding it causes water to flow into the well. Thus 
as pumping progresses the water table or peizometric surface about a discharging well 
develops the general form of a steadily expanding inverted cone with the apex or lowest 
point at the well. As this cone of depression expands it may measurably lower the water 
level in nearby wells, and the magnitude of the lowering should thus be a determining factor 
in the spacing of wells. In artesian wells a dewatered cone generally is not formed within 
the aquifer, but the ,piezometric surface, or level to which water will rise in unobstructed 
wells tightly cased, is drawn down in a similar manner. The drawdown in a well and the 
extent of the cone of depression depend upon the permeability of the water-bearing material 
and its saturated thickness, the quantity of water withdrawn, the proximity of areas of 
recharge, the duration of discharge, and other factors. Inasmuch as the hydrologic properties 
of aquifers differ widely, the yield, drawdown, and extent of influence of particular wells 
are difficult to evaluate without well-planned and adequately interpreted pumping tests. 
The specific capacity of a well, which is the rate of discharge for each unit of draw- 
down, is expressed usually as gallons per minute for each foot of drawdown. The specific 
capacity of wells differs greatly but generally is much larger for wells in coarse uncon- 
solidated materials than for wells in consolidated formations. Wells in medium or coarse 
gravel may have specific capacities ranging from 10 to 100 gpm, or more, per foot of draw- 
down. 


The drawdown, and consequently the yield, of wells differs greatly in accordance 
with the' hydrologic properties of the water-bearing formation. Thus, for example, draw- 
downs in relatively productive water-bearing formations may decrease in magnitude rapidly 
within a few hundred feet from pumped wells. Drawdowns in less productive formations, 
however, may be considerable at distances of a thousand feet or more from the pumped 
well, for the same rates of withdrawal. Adequate information on the hydrologic properties 
of water-bearing formations, therefore, is essential to estimate satisfactorily the optimum 
yield of wells, the most economical spacing of wells, and the desirable size of the pumping 
equipment. 
The many factors involved in the location, construction, and develQpment of wells 
make it advisable to employ reliable well drillers who know local conditions and utilize 
modern methods of construction. A record should be made of the static and pumping levels 


29 



of the water, the yield, and other data obtained during an adequate pumping test, and of the ma- 
terials encountered during drilling. These data aid in the selection of suitable screens, permit 
exclusion of water of undesirable quality, and serve as a guide for future repairs or 
additional drilling. For a discussion of well drilling and pumps, the reader is referred to 
Brown (1949). 
Types of Wells 
Most of the ground water used in Wayne County is recovered through dug and drilled 
wells. Records were compiled for 289 drilled wells and 67 dug wells. The drilled wells average 
44 feet in depth and most are 6 inches in diameter. Deeper drilling in Wayne County has 
generally produced water of unsatisfactory quality. Most of the dug wells are about 3 feet 
in diameter and from 15 to 25 feet deep, although wells that furnish large supplies of water 
are as much as 20 feet in diameter. In former years the number of dug wells greatly exceeded 
the number of drilled ones. Recently, however, the majority have been drilled. This is true 
especially of wells on hillside farms and in upland areas where, during dry periods, the water 
table falls below the bottom of shallow dug wells. Even in low areas where there is a 
moderate amount of glacial cover, more wells are being drilled than are being dug. Where 
the movement of water is very slow, however, as it is in till and in some shale, a greater 
recovery probably could be attained from a large-diameter dug well than from a small- 
diameter drilled well. 
In areas underlain by unconsolidated sand and gravel, in which the water table is at 
shallow depths, driven points may be adequate for small supplies. Such favorable conditions 
are not common in Wayne County and records were obtained for only three driven wells 
(Wn 231, Wn 412, and Wn 444). The wells are less than 20 feet in depth and are 1
 inches 
in diameter. 


Unconsolidated deposits are the principal aquifers in Wayne County tapped by driven 
wells, most of the dug wells, and about half the drilled wells for which records were ob- 
tained. The comparatively large number of drilled wells tapping unconsolidated materials, 
considering that permeable sand and gravel deposits are not extensive, is attributed to 
the generally poor quality of water encountered in the bedrock aquifer. Wells drilled into 
consolidated rock are cased generally only to the top of the rock unless it is desired to shut 
off unsatisfactory water at greater depths. Wells in unconsolidated materials are cased 
throughout their depth and may have screens at the bottom or open bottoms. The yield of 
wells in unconsolidated sediments may be increased considerably by the use of carefully 
selected screen or slotted pipe, or by perforating the casing opposite the water-bearing bed. 
Gravel-packed wells, which are especially adapted to fine-grained aquifers with uniforrn- 
size particles, may be useful in developing large amounts of water from unconsolidated 
aquifers. Records of only two gravel-packed wells (Wn 37 and Wn 215) were obtained. 
The yield of well Wn 37 reportedly was increased from a small amount to 400 gpm by 
modern methods of construction and development. 


Springs 
Springs are natural openings from which ground water flows. In some places in 
Wayne County, springs furnish good supplies of ground water, most of which flows from 
Pleistocene deposits. The Newark State School, south of the village of Newark, uses three 
springs (Wn ISp, Wn 2Sp, and Wn 3Sp) for its water supply. The flows do not fluctuate 
greatly, and the supply seems to be adequate. The village of Wolcott, in the northeastern 
part of the County, uses two springs (Wn 20Sp and Wn 21Sp) to augment its supply from 
wells. Many farms use spring water for domestic or stock purposes. Table 4 shows the 
records of selected springs in the County. 


30 



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31 



UTILIZATION 
Public Supplies 
Public supplies in Wayne County are derived from ground water, surface water, and 
a combination of the two. The larger villages and water districts must depend on surface 
water because of large water requirements and the greater quantity of surface water available. 
The smaller villages usually can find adequate supplies of ground water and can develop 
these at a great deal less expense. In Wayne County ground-water temperatures remain 
fairly constant, at approximately 50° F., throughout the :year. Ground water is used with 
little or no treatment if obtained from an area away from "'surface-disposal units. 
Clyde.-The village of Clyde obtains its water from a large-diameter dug well (Wn 
242) in the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel. The well, which is owned by the Rochester 
and Lake Ontario Water Service Corps supplies a population of 2,492 and some industry. 
The daily consumption and storage capacity are about 200,000 gallons. Treatment consists of 
chlorination. 
Lyons.-The village of Lyons has a population of 4,217 and derives the major portion 
of its water from a series of spring-fed ponds in Seneca County, 7.5 miles south of the 
village. The Junius Ponds do not supply enough water to meet all the needs, however, and 
a well (Wn 221) at the pumping station is used during the summer months when the water 
levels of the ponds drop, and at times when' the pond water is highly colored. In an emer- 
gency, this well alone is barely adequate to meet the needs of the village. Maximum daily 
consumption is about 800,000 gallons and average daily consumption is about 400,000 gallons. 
Storage capacity in the reservoirs and two tanks is reported to be 250,000 gallons. 
There is a treatment plant at the village to which the water from the ponds flows 
by gravity. Drainage water from a peat bog just west of the ponds at times gives the water 
a high color which is not readily removable at the treatment plant. A recent and unusual 
addition to the system is the use of natural brine from a nearby well (Wn 546) to recharge 
a base-exchange water softener in the treatment plant. 
The chemical characteristics of the water from well Wn 221 are not as desirable as 
water from the Junius Ponds. The iron content is high, necessitating treatment by aeration 
to oxidize, and then filtration for removal. The total hardness of the well water is about 700 
parts per million as compared to an average hardness of the Junius Ponds water of about 
300 parts per million. Analyses of water from wells Wn 221 and Wn 546 are given in 
table 5. 
Macedon.-The municipal-water supply for Macedon is obtained from a large-diameter 
dug well (Wn 9). The well serves a population of 614 in the village and, in addition, a 
large canning factory at the east end of the village. The average daily consumption for 
the village and the factory during the canning season is about 400,000 gallons, of which 
300,000 gallons is used for canning. The yield from this well has proved insufficient during 
periods of low precipitation and the village is attempting to find additional supplies of water. 
Chemical analysis of the water is given in table 5. 
Newark.-Newark, the largest village in Wayne County, has a population of almost 
10,000. The village has developed a reservoir 2.5 miles southwest of Phelps in Ontario 
County by damming a northward-flowing tributary of Flint Creek. This reservoir is approxi- 
mately 0.7 by 0.4 mile in size and stores runoff water from the surrounding wooded area. 
The water is treated by coagulation, filtration, and the addition of chlorine and ammonia 
before being used. To augment the supply from the reservoir, the village uses wells (Wn 244 
and Wn 245) in the Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel. 


32 



The growing population of the village and the increased use of water for industrial 
purposes has resulted in the present water supply being barely adequate to meet the demand. 
Maximum daily consumption is reportedly about 1,250,000 gallons and the average is about 
800,000 gallons. Less than 20 percent of the supply is furnished by the wells, the remainder 
coming from the reservoir. As a large additional supply of water is necessary to keep pace 
with growing industry and population, the village is considering the installation of a system 
that would utilize Canandaigua Lake. 
Ontario.-The village of Ontario, with a population of 1,800 in its water district, uses 
an abandoned ore pit half a mile north of the village as a source of water supply. The ore 
pit was formerly a strip mine for hematite. The water is treated at the pit by coagulation, 
filtration, and chlorination before it is pumped into the village system. The daily consump- 
tion is about 200,000 gallons, of which a reported 75 percent supplies local industry. Estimated 
storage capacity of the p1t is 50,000,000 gallons. 
Palmyra.-The village of Palmyra, population 3,034, draws its water from Canandaigua 
Lake. A dug well (Wn 254) serves as an auxiliary supply and is used occasionally. Water from 
the lake is treated by filtration and chlorination; water from the well, by chlorination, only. 
The average daily consumption is about 200,000 gallons, a small part of which is used by 
ind ustry. 
Red Creek.-The village of Red Creek obtains its water supply from a drilled well 
(Wn 247) and several springs half a mile northwest of the village. The maximum and average 
daily consumption is reportedly 75,000 and 45,000 gallons, respectively. About 50 percent of 
the supply serves local industry. The village has a standpipe with a capacity of 100,000 gallons 
and an additional estimated storage capacity of 100,000 gallons in the collecting basin at the 
springs. The springs are used during periods of low water level in the well. An additional 
source of supply is needed by the village. 
Savannah.-The village of Savannah, which has a population of 582, obtains its water 
supply from a dug well (Wn 241) constructed at the site of a spring. Consumption averages 
about 60,000 gallons daily and there is storage capacity for 500,000 gallons. Some water is 
sold for industrial use. The water is chlorinated. 
Sodus.-The village of Sodus, which has a population of 1,558, obtains its water 
supply from a spring (Wn 19Sp) and a drilled well (Wn 37). Chemical analyses of water 
from both sources are contained in table 5. The village has storage facilities for over 1,000,000 
gallons. The average consumption is 120,000 gallons but during certain seasons of the year 
industrial use of water increases consumption to more than 300,000 gallons daily. At present 
the village is adding another water district to its water-supply system. This additional drain 
is likely to cause a shortage of water when dry periods coincide with periods of maximum 
usage. Larger supplies of water can probably be obtained either from additional wells or 
from Lake Ontario. 
Sodus Point.-The Sodus Point water district obtains its water supply from Lake 
Ontario. The district has a summer population of about 2,500 and during this season con- 
sumption reaches a maximum of more than 400,000 gallons daily. Consumption at other 
times averages about 100,000 gallons daily. The water is treated at a plant at Sodus Point 
by coagulation, filtration, and the addition of chlorine and amm.onia. 
Williamson.-The Williamson water district, which serves a population of about 4,500, 
includes the East Williamson, Marion, Pultneyville, Ridge-Chapel, West Ridge, Williamson- 
Marion, and Williamson districts. The source of water supply is Lake Ontario and a pumping 
station and treatment plant are at Pultneyville. Treatment includes coagulation, nltration, cor- 


33 



rosion control, and the addition of chlorine, ammonia, and activatea carbon. A booster pump 
at Williamson helps pump the water southward to Marion. Daily consumption averages 
450,000 gallons and ranges up to 700,000 gallons. An adequate supply of water is available 
for all districts. 
Wolcott.-The village of Wolcott obtains its water from two springs (Wn 20Sp and 
Wn 21Sp), a dug well (Wn 542), and a drilled well (Wn 543), all located south of the village. 
A population of 1,516 is served by the municipal water system, which reportedly has storage 
facilities for over 400,000 gallons. The daily consumption averages about 100,000 gallons, 
but there are periods of much greater usage and water shortages have been experienced dur- 
ing dry periods. 
Industrial and Commercial Supplies 
Industrial activity in Wayne County is concentrated in to'lIls that have municipal- 
water supplies. Large demands for water for industrial use, therefore, have been met chiefly 
by municipal supplies except where water of low temperature is desired for cooling and air 
conditioning. Of the 16 industrial wells listed (table 7), 5 are used for cooling purposes. 
Ground water is an important source of supply to food-processing industries in Wayne County 
and water from several wells is used for washing celery, canning, or brewing. The needs of 
these industries, based as they are on a variety of food products, are satisfactorily met by 
wells ranging in yield from 10 to 400 gpm. 
Only a few wells in Wayne County furnish water for commercial establishments. These 
establishments, which include stores, garages, filling stations, restaurants, and hotels, are 
located in the larger villages or along the more important highways. Those located in the 
larger villages commonly utilize public-supply systems, but those not within village limits are 
generally dependent upon wells. Only six wells for which records were obtained are used for 
commercial purposes. 
Domestic and Farm Supplies 
Except in communities that have a municipal supply, domestic supplies of water through- 
out the County are obtained almost exclusively from privately owned wells and springs. The 
domestic uses of water include drinking, cooking, washing, and sanitation. Water for cattle 
and other animals is also obtained from ground-water sources and, where the number of 
stock to be cared for is small, one well or one spring may suffice for both the stock and the 
household. Approximately 33 percent of the 546 recorded wells in the County are used for 
domestic supplies and 24 percent are used for farm needs. 
Only one of the wells investigated in Wayne County, well Wn 316, is used for irriga- 
tion. The water is obtained from Pleistocene deposits and the yield is 75 gpm. The well has been 
pumped continuously for 48 hours with no sign of depletion. This well has been listed as a 
farm well in table 7. 


QUALITY 
Chemical Constituents 
Water samples from 48 wells and springs were collected in Wayne County for chemical 
analysis (table 5). Wells were selected for sampling to give, as near as possible, a represen- 
tation of the quality of the ground water throughout the County. 
The factors that determine the suitability of water for domestic and industrial use are 
primarily dissolved solids, total hardness, iron content, and the concentration of bicarbonate, 
chloride, and sulfate salts. 
Dissolved solids.-Water with a content of less than 500 parts per million (ppm) of 
dissolved solids is generally satisfactory for dometic or industrial use if the hardness or iron 


34 



content is not too great. Water with more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids generally may be 
used for limited domestic uses or for cooling and washing purposes. However, the use of such 
water for cooling would depend on the type of minerals present in the water. 
The content of dissolved solids was determined for only 37 of the 48 recorded samples. 
Of these, 14 show a concentration greater than 500 ppm. In 6 samples the dissolved solids 
were over 1,000 ppm. Of those, 3 were from the Salina formation, 1 each from the Clinton 
formation and the Albion sandstone, and 1 from Pleistocene gravel. The average concentra- 
tion in all of the samples collected is 1,033 ppm, and the range is from 128 ppm to 8,830 ppm. 
Hardne88.-Hardness is usually recognized by the amount of soap that is necessary to 
produce lather with a given amount of water. The greater the hardness, the greater is the 
amount of soap required. Calcium and magnesium are the constituents in solution that are 
primarily responsible for undesirable hardness. They are also responsible for the forma- 
tion of scale in steam boilers, tea kettles, and water pipes. 
Carbonate hardness (temporary hardness), caused by the presence of calcium and 
magnesium bicarbonate, can largely be removed by boiling the water. The noncarbonate 
hardness (permanent hardness) is due to the presence of calcium or magnesium chloride or 
sulfate, which cannot be removed by boiling. Water with a hardness of less than 50 ppm is 
regarded as soft and softening treatment is rarely necessary. A hardness of 50 to 150 ppm is 
usually noticeable only by a slight increase in the amount of soap necessary to produce a 
good lather. For average domestic use treatment is unnecessary and would rarely be profit- 
able to the user. For industrial use treatment of water in the upper portion of this scale might 
be economical. Laundries, by softening water of this hardness, would save much soap. Indus- 
tries using water with a hardness greater than 100 ppm in steam boilers often have trouble 
with scale and would probably find it profitable to install a water-softening system. A hardness 
of more than 150 ppm is noticeable by anyone, and water with a hardness greater than about 
300 ppm requires softening before it is satisfactory even for domestic use. It is to be noted, 
however, that for certain uses, such as spraying and washing fruit and vegetables, water in 
the upper ranges of hardness may be entirely satisfactory. 
Very little of the ground water in Wayne County can be called "soft." Of the 48 sam- 
ples, only 1 had a total hardness of less than 50 ppm, 3 had a hardness of less than 100 ppm, 
23 had a hardness greater than 300 ppm, and 9 had a total hardness of more than 1,000 ppm. 
The hardness is predominantly noncarbonate as sulfate is usually the predominant acid radical. 
Carbonate hardness in the samples ranged from 36 ppm to 323 ppm and averaged 187 ppm. 
Iron.-The reddish sediment reported in many of the well waters of Wayne County is 
iron. When water contains more than 0.3 ppm of iron, the excess is likely to settle out upon 
exposure to the air and stain pots and pans or plumbing fixtures carrying the water. It 
also can cause considerable trouble in laundries and paper mills. 
Of the samples analyzed, 25 show an iron content greater than 0.3 ppm and 16 show 
a content greater than 1.0 ppm. The highest iron content, 9.3 ppm, is in well Wn 500, which 
draws water from glacial gravel. Water samples from all bedrock formations and from the 
glacial material may show high content of iron, though the Clinton is the only formation with 
beds of iron ore. Water from the Clinton formation shows a slightly higher average iron con- 
tent than does water from the other formations. The average iron content of the water samples 
taken in Wayne County is 1.04 ppm. 
Chloride.-The United States Public Health Service (1946, p. 383) recommends 250 
ppm as the maximum limit for chloride in drinking water. This limit was exceeded by three 
samples from the Salina formation and one sample from the Albion sandstone. Water of such 


35 



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37 



high chloride content, IS unsuitable for domestic consumption although it probably would be 
satisfactory for stock use. The Albion sandstone and the Salina formation contain large amounts 
of saline water and wells encountering this water usually contain large amounts of salty water 
below a depth of about 80 feet. 


Temperature 
The temperature of ground water in Wayne County is fairly constant throughout the 
year. Available measurements of temperature of well water show a range from 48° to 50° F. 
and an average of approximately 50° F., which is just 3° higher than the yearly average air 
temperature for this region. The protective layer of soil and earth overlying the zone of satu- 
ration transmits seasonal changes in temperature very slowly. Consequently, ground water is 
affected very little by these changes, and deeper aquifers are affected less than shallower 
ones. In contrast, surface-water temperatures fluctuate with the seasons, being warmer during 
the summer and colder during the winter. 


REFERENCES 
Alling, H. L., 1928, The geology and origin of the Silurian salt of New York State: New York 
State Mus. Bull. 275. 


Brown, R. H., 1949, Ground water, recovery, in Arnow, Theodore, The ground-water re- 
source8 of Albany County, N. Y.: New York State Water Power and Control Commis- 
sion Bull. GW-20, pp. 21-27. 
Chadwick, G. H., 1918, Stratigraphy of the New York Clinton: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 29, 
pp. 327-368. 
Cooper, H. H., Jr., and Jacob, C. E., 1946, A generalized graphical method for evaluating 
formation constants and 8Ummarizing well-field history: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 
vol. 27, pp. 526-534. 
Curran, T. J., 1951, Manual for the use of the Legislature of the State of New York 1951: 
Albany, Williams Press, Inc. 
Cushman, R. V., 1946, Preliminary report on ground-water conditions near Macedon, Wayne 
County, N. Y. (manuscript report, 18 pp., in files of U. S. Geol. Survey). 
Fairchild, H. L., 1907, Drumlins of central western New York: New York State Mus. Bull. II!. 
, 1909, Glacial waters in central New York: New York State Mus. Bull. 127. 
, 1925, The Susquehanna River in New York and the evolution of western }1 ew 
York drainage: New York State Mus. Bull. 256. 
Fenneman, N. M., 1938, Physiography of the eastern United States: New York, McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc. 
Ferris, J. G., 1949, Ground water, in Wisler, C. 0., and Brater, E. F., Hydrology: chapter 7, 
pp. 198-272, New York, John Wiley & Sons. 
Gillette, Tracy, 1940, Geology of the Clyde and Sodus Bay quadrangles, New York, with a 
chapter on the water re80urces by B. H. DolZen: New York State Mus. Bull. 320. 
Goldring, Winifred, 1931, Handbook of paleontology, part 2, The formations: New York State 
Mus. Handbook 10. 
Hall, James, 1843, Geology of New York, part 4. Comprising the survey of the Fourth Geologic 
District: Albany. 


38 



Hartnagel, C. A., 1907, Geologic map of the Rochester and Ontario Beach quadf/angles: New 
York State Mus. Bull. 114. 
, 1907, Stratigraphic relations of the Oneida conglomerate: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 107. 
, 1912, Classification of the geologic formations of the State of New York: New 
York State Mus. Handbook 19. 
, and Broughton, J. G., 1951, The mining and quarry industries of New York State, 
1937 to 1948: New York State Mus. Bull. 343. 
Kindle, E. M., and Taylor, F. B., 1913, Description of the Niagara quadrangle, N. Y.: U. s. 
Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 190. 
Leggette, R. M., Gound, L. 0., and Dollen, B. H., 1935, Ground-water resources of Monroe 
County, N. Y.: Rochester, Monroe County Regional Planning Board. 
Meinzer, O. E., 1923a, The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discus- 
sion of principles: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489. 
, 
, 1923b, Outline of ground-water hydrology, with definitions: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 494. 
Miller, W. J., 1924, The geological history of New York State: New York State Mus. Bull. 255. 
Newland, D. H., and Hartnagel, C. A., 1908, The iron ores of the Clinton forma,tion of New 
York State : New York State Mus. Bull. 123. 
, 1932, Review of the natural gas and petroleum developments of New York State: 
New York State Mus. Bull. 295. 
, 1936, Recent natural gas developments in New York State: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 305. 
Sanford, J. T., 1936, The Clinton in New York: Jour. Geology, vol. 44, pp. 797-814. 
Theis, C. V., 1935, The relation between the lowering of the peizometric surface and the rate 
and duration of discharge of a well using ground-water storage: Am. Geophys. Union 
Trans., vol. 16, pp. 519-524. 
U. S. Public Health Service, 1946, Drinking water standards, 1946: Public Health Reports, 
vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 371-384. 
Van DUYDe, Cornelius, 1923, Soil survey of Wayne County, N. Y.: U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. 
Chemistry and Soils, sere 1925. 
Wenzel, L. K., 1942, Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 887. 


39 



Table 6.-Drillers l logs of selected wells in Wayne County, N. Y. 
(Altitudes are interpolated from topographic maps, pl. .1) 
Thickness Depth 
Wn 37; 8K, 2.5S, 9.3E; drilled by Layne-New York Co. in 1945; (feet) (feet) 
altitude 440 feet. 
Soil .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 
Clay, sandy, gray ....................................... 8 9 
Clay and some gravel .................................... 4 13 
G ravel, medium to coarse, and some clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 23 
Clay, fine gravel, some sand .............................. 9 32 
Limestone .............................................. 2 34 


Wn 79; 8K, 11.4S, 6.4E; drilled by D. Rigby; altitude 460 feet. 
Hard pan ............................................... 
G ravel ........,........................................ 


70 
3 


70 
73 


Wn 80; 8K, 12.1,S, 7.1E; drilled by Leon CaSter, altitude 480 feet. 
Hardpan ................................................ 103 103 
Sand, fine .............................................. 21 124 
Shale, red and blue ...................................... 61 185 


Wn 133; 8K, 0.9N, 2.9W; drilled by B. G. VanIngen in 1943; altitude 
340 feet. 
Hardpan ................................................ 30 30 
Sandstone, red .......................................... 14 44 


Wn 154; 8L, 6.7S, 6.5E; drilled by Leon Caster in 1947; altitude 425 feet. 
Clay and quicksand ....................................... 35 35 
Hardpan and boulders ................................... 30 65 
Hardpan and sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . . . 17 82 
Limestone, black, with white streaks of quartz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 107 


Wn 181; 8L, 8.0S, 2.1E; drilled by W. Schuldt; altitude 450 feet. 
Gravel and boulders ..................................... 
Sand, gray (water-bearing) .............................. 
Dolomite, blue .......................................... 


Wn 182; 8L, 1.6S, 9.3E; drilled by W. Schuldt; altitude 360 feet. 
Sand ............................................ '. . . . . . 
Limestone .............................................. 
Iron ore, red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Limestone .............................................. 


Wn 210; 8K, 8.8S, 10.8E; drilled by Cornwell & Comstock in 1942; 
altitude 440 feet. 
Sand and clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse ............................................ 
Hardpan ............................................... 


40 


30 30 
35 65 
59 124 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
35 35 
125 160 
3 163 
52 215 


15 
10 
67 


15 
25 
92 



Table 6.-Drillers l logs of selected wells in Wayne County, N. Y. (Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
Wn 215; 8L, 2.2S, 12.5E; drilled by Layne-New York Co. in 1946; alti- (feet) (feet) 
tude 450 feet. 


Soil ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . 
Sand, brown ............................................ 
Clay, sandy ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 
Gravel, coarse .......................................... 
Gravel, coarse, with boulders, sand, clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand .................................................. 
Sand and gravel, very tight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, coarse, sand, clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and sand, very tight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Wn 221; 8L, 13.0S, 0.7E; drilled by W. Schuldt and H. J. Kriegelstein 
in 1944; altitude 400 feet. 
Till .................................................... 
Sand, brown ............................................ 
Gravel ....................................'............. 
Hardpan ...........................................,.... 
Gravel, brown sand, clay, silt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gravel, clay, silt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand .................................................. 
Quicksand and fine gravel ............................'.... 
Sand .................................................. 
Hard pan ..................................... '. . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, and fine gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, hardpan ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, gray .............................................. 
Shale ............................................ 
 . . . . . 
Rock, brown ............................................ 


.. 


1 
8 
9 
7 
7 
3 
8 
7 
10 
8 


5 
4 
4 
1 
11 
10 
5 
5 
4 
3 
10 
3 
10 
18 
4 


1 
9 
18 
25 
32 
35 
43 
50 
60 
68 


5 
9 
13 
14 
25 
35 
40 
45 
49 
52 
62 
65 
75 
93 
97 


Wn 268; 8K, 14.3S, 2.4E; drilled by P. Gardner; altitude 550 feet. 
Hardpan and clay ....................................... 85 85 
Shale, red and blue ...................................... 40 125 


Wn 271; 8L, 3.3N, 12.4E; drilled by Caster Bros.; altitude 400 feet. 
Clay hardpan ........................................... 156 156 
Sandstone, red .......................................... 81 237 


Wn 288; 8L, 1
.6S, 2.8E; drilled by B. Moravic in 1947; altitude 450 feet. 
Clay and boulders .......................'................ 85 85 
Limestone, gray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 95 


Wn 389; 8L, 15.8S, 11.0E; drilled by C. Sweet & Son; altitude 400 feet. 
Clay .................................................... 100 100 
Limestone and shale, alternating ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 120 


41 



Table 6.-Drillers' logs of selected wells in Wayne County, N. Y. (Continued) 


Wn 413; 8K, 1.5N, 0.5E; altitude 320 feet. 
Hardpan ............................................... 
Quicksand ........................................ '. . . . . . 
Shale, red. .............................................. 


Wn 464; 8K, 0.7N, 5.5E; drilled by B. G. VanIngen in 1947; altitude 
390 feet. 
Hardpan ............................................... 
Sandstone .............................................. 


Wn 487; 8L, 1.8S, 11.2E; drilled by C. Sweet & Son in 1947; altitude 
435 feet. 
Clay ................................................... 
Shale, black ............................................ 


Wn 502; 8L, 16.2S, 6.3E; drilled by Leon Caster in 1935; altitude 510 feet. 
Clay, some gravel lenses (water-bearing) .................. 
Salina formation ........................................ 


Wn 524; 8M, 2.4S, 1.9E; drilled by M. Caster in 1947; altitude 380 feet. 
Sand (water-bearing) ................................... 
Dolomite ................................................ 


Wn 533; 8L, 12.9S, 0.5E; drilled by N. A. Crandall in 1948; altitude 
410 feet. 
Loam ........................................'.......... 
Hard pan ............................................... 
Gravel, fine ............................................. 
Sand, fine .............................................. 
G ravel, coarse .......................................... 
Hardpan ............................................... 
Clay, blue ............................................... 
Rock at ................................................ 


Wn 539; 8L, 3.3S, 3.4E; drilled by C. Sweet & Son; altitude 350 feet. 
Clay, blue .............................................. 
Shale, red ............'.................................. 


Wn 541; 8L, 5.2S, 1.8E; altitude 430 feet. 
Soil .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
G ravel .'................................................ 
Clay, blue .............................................. 


42 


Thickness 
(feet) 
11 
1 
4 


40 
30 


10 
19 


32 
10 


50 
60 


20 
5 
2 
10 
3 
6 
16 


26 
40 


3 
7 
10 


Depth 
(feet) 
11 
12 
16 


40 
70 


10 
29 


32 
42 


" 50 
110 


20 
25 
27 
37 
40 
46 
62 
62 


26 
66 


3 
10 
20 



Table 6.-Drillers' logs of selected wells in Wayne County, N. Y. (Concluded) 
Thickness Depth 
Wn 545; 8L, 13.0S, 0.7E; drilled by W. E. Sawyer in 1949; alti
ude 400 (feet) (feet) 
feet. 
Soil and fill ............................................ 2 2 
Hardpan ............................................".. 3 5 
Sand, brown, gravel ..................................... 10 15 
Sand, gray, fine ......................................... 38 53 
Sand, brown ............................................. 4 57 
Sand and gravel ........................................ 4 61 


Wn 546; 8L, 13.1S, 0.7E; drilled by W. E. Sawyer in 1949; altitude 400 
feet. 
Topsoil ................................................ 1 1 
Clay hardpan .......................................... 4 5 
Sand and gravel ........................................ 15 20 
Sand, fine .............................................. 10 30 
Sand and clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 35 
Sand .................................................. 20 55 
Gravel (water-bearing) .................................. 5 60 
Shale .................................................. 16 76 
Sandstone (water-bearing) ............................... 8 84 
Shale, gray and red ..................................... 54 138 
Shale, brown ............................................ 18 156 
Sandstone, gray ........................................ 7 163 
Shale, gray and red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,' . . . . . . 196 359 
Limestone .............................................. 12 371 


43 




 
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57 



Table S.-Reports dealing with ground-water conditions in New York prepared by the U. S. Geologi
al 
Survey and the New York State Water Power and Control Commission in cooperation with 
various counties and municipalities and published by the Commission a 


Bulletin 
GW 
1 


16 


17 


18 


2 


Title 
Withdrawal of ground water on Long Island, 
N. Y. 
Engineering report on the water supplies of 
Long Island. 
Record of wells in Kings County, N. Y. 


Author(s) 
Thompson, D. G., and 
Leggette, R. M. 
Suter, Russell 


Leggette, R. M., and 
others 
Leggette, R. M., and 
others 
Leggette, R. M., and 
others 
Leggette, R. M., and 
others 
Sanford, Homer 


Leggette, R. M., and 
Brashears, M. L., 
Jr. 
Roberts, C. M., and 
Brashears, M. L., 
Jr. 
Roberts, C. M., and 
Brashears, M. L., 
Jr. 
Roberts, C. M., and 
J aster, Marion C. 
Jacob, C. E. 


De Laguna, Wallace 
and Brashears, 
M. L., Jr. 
Jacob, C. E. 


Brown, R. H., and 
Ferris, J. G. 


Asselstine, E. S. 


De Laguna, Wallace 


Suter, Russell; 
De Laguna, 
Wallace; and 
Perlmutter, N. M. 


Year 
Published 
1936 


1937 


1937 


1938 


1938 


1938 


1938 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1945 


1948 


1945 


1946 


1946 


1948 


1950 


· Records of periodic measurement of the water level in observation wells in New York are printed annually in the water-suppl, 
papers of the U. S. Geological.Survey. See Water-Supply Papers 777, 817, 840, 845, 886, 906, 936, 944, 986, 1016, 1023, 1071, and 1126. 


3 


4 


Record of wells in Suffolk County, N. Y. 


5 


Record of wells in Nassau County, N. Y. 


6 


Record of wells in Queens County, N. Y. 


7 


Report on the geology and hydrology of Kings 
and Queens Counties, Long Island 
Record of wells in Kings County, N. Y. 


8 


9 


Record of wells in Suffolk County, N. Y., sup- 
plement 1. 


10 


Record of wells in Nassau County, N. Y., sup- 
plement 1. 


11 


Record of wells in Queens County, N. Y., Sup- 
plement 1. 
The water table in the western and central 
parts of Long Island, N. Y. 
The configuration of the rock floor in western 
Long Island, N. Y. 


12 


13 


14 


Correlation of ground-water levels and precipi- 
tation on Long Island, N. Y. 
Progress report on ground-water resources of 
the southwestern part of Broome County, 
N. Y. 
Progress report on ground-water conditions in 
the Cortland quadrangle, N. Y. 
Geologic correlation of logs of wells in Kings 
County, N. Y. 
Mapping of geologic formations and aquifers 
of Long Island, N. Y. 


15 


58 



Table 8.-Reports dealing with ground-wa
r conditions in New York prepared by the U. S. Geologica 
Survey and the New York State Wa.er Power and Control Commission in cooperation witt 
various counties and municipalities 1 and published by the Commission& (Continued) 
I 
I 
, 


Geologic atlas of Long Island. 
The ground-water resources pf Albany County, Arnow, Theodore 
N. Y. 
The ground-water resources of Rensselaer Cushman, R. V. 
County, N. Y. I 
The ground-water resour
s of Schoharie Berdan, Jean M. 
I 
County, N. Y. : 
The ground-water resource
 of Montgomery Jeffords, R. M. 
I 
County, N. Y. ! 
The ground-water resources iof Fulton County, Arnow, Theodore 
N. Y. 
The ground-water resourCes of Columbia Arnow, Theodore 
County, N. Y. : 
The ground-water resources :of Seneca County, Mozola, A. J. 
N. Y. 
The water table in Long Island, N. Y., in Janu- Lusczynski, N. J., 
ary 1951. 1 and Johnson, A. H. 
. Records of periodic measurement of the water lev 
 in observation wells in New York are printed annnally in the water-suppl,. 
papers of the U. S. Geological Survey. See Water-Supply Papers '1'1'1, 81'1, 840, 845, 886, 906, 936, 944. 986. 1016, 1023. 10'11, and 1126. 
1 
1 


Bulletin 
GW 
19 
20 


21 


Title 


Author (s) 


Year 
Published 


1950 
1949 


1950 


22 


1950 


28 


1950 


24 


1950 


25 


1951 


26 


1951 


27 


1951 


59 



Abstract, 1 
Acknowledgments, 4 
Albion sandstone, 10, 11, 12, 86, 88 
Alluvium, 11, 18 
Artesian conditions, 20, 22 
Bedrock, 10 
Black Creek, 7 
Brine well, 24 
Butler Creek, 7 
Camillus shale member, 10,16 
Canandaigua Outlet, 7 
Carbonate hardness, 36 
Chemical constituents, 34 
Chloride, 36 
Clay, 17 
Climate, 7 
Clinton formation, 10, 11, 12, 36, 36 
Clyde, 32 
Clyde River, 6, 7 
Coefficient of permeability, 26 
Coefficient of storage, 26 
Coefficient of transmissibility, 26 
Commercial supplies, 34 
Cone of depression, 29 
Consolidated rocks, 10 
Crusoe Creek, 7 
Culture, 4 
Deltas, 17 
Dissolved solids, 84 
Domestic supplies, 84 
Drawdown,29 
Drumlins, 6, 16 
Eskers, 17 
Fairport-Lyons glacial-stream channel, 
6, 7, 16, 18, 22, 24 


Farming, 4 
Farm supplies, 84 
Flowing wells, 20 
Fluctuations of water level, 22 
Ganargua Creek, 7 
Geography, 4 
Geologic formations, 10, 11 
Albion sandstone, 10, 11, 36, 36, 38 
CamiIlus shale member, 10,16 
Clinton formation, 10, 11, 12, 36, 36 
Glacial drift, 11, 16, 36 
Lockport dolomite, 9, 10, 11, 14, 86 
Salina formation, 10, 11, 16, 36, 36, 38 
Vernon shale member, 10, 16 
Water-bearing properties of, 11 
Glacial beach deposits, 16 
Glacial channels, 6, 7, 16, 18 
Glacial deposits, 11, 16, 36 
Glacial drift, 11, 16, 36 
Glacial-lake deposits, 16 
Glacial-stream deposits, 17 
Ground moraine, 16 


INDEX 


Ground water, 19 
bulletins for New York State, 68 
movement and storage, 20 
occurrence, 19 
quality, 34 
recovery, 29 
source, 19 
storage, 20 
temperature, 38 
utilization, 32 
Hardness, 36 
Hardpan, 16 
Hydrographs of wells, 21, 23, 26 
Industrial supplies, 34 
Industry, 4 
Introduction, 2 
Irondequoit limestone member, 13 
Iron in water, 36, 86 
Iron minerals, 9 
Irrigation, 84 
Kames, 17 
Lake Iroquois, 6, 19 
Lake Montezuma, 17, 19 
Lake Ontario, 6 
Lake plain, 6, 9 
Location of area, 4 
Location of wells and springs, 2, pI. 1 
Lockport dolomite, 9, 10, 14, 16 
Lyons, 6, 9, 18, 24, 82 
Macedon, 82 
Montezuma Marsh, 7 
Muck lands, 18 
Natural resources, 9 
Newark, 18, 26 
Newark State School, 30 
Niagara group, 10 
N on carbonate hardness, 36 
Observation wells, 21, 22 
Ontario, 33 
Oswego River, 7 
Outwash sand and gravel, 11, 17, 18 
Palmyra, 33 
Perched water table, 20 
Permanent hardness, 86 
Permeability, 19, 26 
Piezometric surface, 22 
Pleistocene drift, 16 
Population, 4 
Porosity, 19 
Precipitation, 9 
Previous investigations, 2 
Public supplies, 32 
Pumping test, Lyons, N. Y., 24 
Purpose and scope of investigation, 2 
Recent alluvium, 11, 18 
Recent series, 11 
Red Creek, 33 


60 . 



Reynales limestone member, 18 
Ridge road, 5 
Rocdrumlins, 17 
Rochester shale member, 18 
Salina formation, 10, 11, 15, 85, 86, 88 
Sand and gravel, 9, 16, 17, 85 
Savannah, 88 
Seneca River, 7 
Sodus, 5, 88 
Sodus Point, 88 
Sodus shale member, 18 
Soils, 5, 18, 19 
Specific capacity, 29 
Springs, 80, 81 
Stream-gaging stations, 7 
Structural geology, 10 
Surface drainage, 7 
Temperature of water, 88 
Temporary hardness, 85 
Till, 11, 16, 80 
Topography, 5 
Transportation, 4 
Types of wells, 80 


Utilization of water, 82 
commercial, 84 
domestic, 84 
farm, 84 
industrial, 84 
public, 82 
Vernon shale member, 10, 15 
Water-levels, 20,21,22,28 
Water table, 20, 21 
Weather records, 7 
Wells, 80 
drilled, 80 
driven, 80 
dug, 30 
flowing, 20 
gas, 9, 15 
gravel-packed, 30 
Well numbering, 2 
Williamson, 33 
Williamson shale member, 13 
Wolcott, 7, 30., 33 
Wolcott limestone member, 13 


61